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Chapter 5. History and Organization of Law Enforcement. A brief history of the police Police in early England. The form of policing that most directly led to that of modern US policing was England's frankpledge system. A brief history of the police Police in early England.

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

History and Organization

of Law Enforcement


A brief history of the police police in early england
A brief history of the policePolice in early England

The form of policing that most directly led to that of modern US policing was England's frankpledge system.


A brief history of the police police in early england1
A brief history of the policePolice in early England

The invention of gin advanced the development of law enforcement by making hard liquor affordable for many people.


A brief history of the police police in early england2
A brief history of the policePolice in early England

Henry Fielding organized the Bow Street Runners, which was more centralized than the watch-and-ward system.


A brief history of the police police in early england3
A brief history of the policePolice in early England

In 1798, the West India Trading Company created London's first professional, salaried police force, the Thames River Police.


A brief history of the police police in early england4
A brief history of the policePolice in early England

In 1829, Sir Robert Peel sponsored the Metropolitan Police Act, the first successful bill to create a permanent, public police force.


English policing contributed three features to us policing
English policing contributed three features to US policing…

A brief history of the policePolice in early England

  • Limited police authority

  • Local control

  • A fragmented system


The 19 th century policing in the united states
The 19 policing…th centuryPolicing in the United States

  • Informal policing began in New York City in 1625.

  • The city's first professional police force was organized in 1845.


The 19 th century policing in the united states1
The 19 policing…th centuryPolicing in the United States

  • The authority of officers in London rested on discretion granted by the government.

  • New York City officers had more discretion, with a personal basis for authority.


The 19 th century policing in the united states2
The 19 policing…th centuryPolicing in the United States

  • Chicago's official police force was created around 1855, and reorganized several times until 1913.

  • Chicago police had four particular orientations toward the law…


The 19 th century policing in the united states3
The 19 policing…th centuryPolicing in the United States

  • Chicago police and courts were highly decentralized.

  • Chicago police were at the command of local organizations.

  • Chicago criminal justice institutions developed informal systems of operation.

  • Chicago criminal justice institutions operated as rackets.


The 19 th century policing in the united states4
The 19 policing…th centuryPolicing in the United States

The vigilante tradition was part of American life, especially in the South and West.


Introduction of police professionalism
Introduction of police professionalism policing…

Reformers & Reform Efforts

  • The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

  • The Wickersham Commission & August Vollmer

  • Orlando Wilson

  • J. Edgar Hoover


Introduction of police professionalism reformers reform efforts
Introduction of police professionalism policing…Reformers & Reform Efforts

The 1883 Pendleton Civil Service Act basically formed a civil service system that dispensed with patronage and administered employment and promotions based on merit rather than political connections.


Introduction of police professionalism reformers reform efforts1
Introduction of police professionalism policing…Reformers & Reform Efforts

In 1931, August Vollmer wrote the Wickersham Commission report that affected police reform for the rest of the 20th century. Features of the progressive movement included an emphasis on technology.


Introduction of police professionalism reformers reform efforts2
Introduction of police professionalism policing…Reformers & Reform Efforts

Orlando W. Wilson increased police efficiency by assigning officers based on the amount of reported crime and calls for service.


Introduction of police professionalism reformers reform efforts3
Introduction of police professionalism policing…Reformers & Reform Efforts

J. Edgar Hoover championed police professionalism and built the FBI into one of the premier law enforcement agencies in the world.


Crosscurrents a brief history of the police frontier justice
CrossCurrents policing…A brief history of the policeFrontier justice

As pioneers flooded into the West seeking land, economic opportunities, or distance from government, the frontier outgrew the ability of the country to formally police it.


Modern police organization
Modern police organization policing…

  • Police department organization varies little.

  • Most have uniforms, ranks, hierarchical chains of command, and centralized decision-making.


Modern police organization1
Modern Police Organization policing…

Crucial differences between the police and the military…

  • Discretion

  • Visibility

  • Authority


Modern police organization problem of jurisdiction
Modern Police Organization policing…Problem of Jurisdiction

  • What has been sacrificed in coordination and efficiency has been gained in responsiveness and accountability

  • Policing is fragmented

  • More than 18,000 agencies nationwide


Levels of law enforcement
Levels of law enforcement policing…

  • Federal level

  • State level

  • Local level


Levels of law enforcement federal level
Levels of law enforcement policing…Federal level

  • Agencies have nationwide jurisdiction, but concentrate on specific crimes.

  • About 60 federal law enforcement agencies are organized under the…

    • Department of Justice

    • Department of the Treasury

    • Department of Homeland Security


Levels of law enforcement federal level1
Levels of law enforcement policing…Federal level

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation

    • Nationwide jurisdiction to combat federal crimes.

  • Secret Service

    • Placed under Homeland Security, its mission has been expanded to include terrorism.


Levels of law enforcement state level
Levels of law enforcement policing…State level

  • There are many variations in agency organization from state to state.

  • State industry or culture can determine the type of state police agencies.

  • Many states have bureaus of investigation.


Levels of law enforcement state level1
Levels of law enforcement policing…State level

  • Many states have organized their state law enforcement functions under their highway patrols.

  • All states have a highway patrol, except for Hawaii.


Levels of law enforcement local level
Levels of law enforcement policing…Local level

  • Local law enforcement agencies handle most crime.

  • Most local police forces are operated by municipalities.

  • About 13,000 local police departments in the United States.

    • The largest is the New York City Police Department.


Levels of law enforcement local level1
Levels of law enforcement policing…Local level


Levels of law enforcement local level2
Levels of law enforcement policing…Local level

  • Sheriff's offices are the most common form of county law enforcement in the US, with about 3,100 offices.

  • Most sheriffs are elected.

  • Most offices run at least one jail.


Innovations in policing
Innovations in Policing policing…

Innovations in policing come from three sources:

  • Social and technological changes

  • Research

  • New ideas.


Innovations in policing social and technological changes
Innovations in Policing policing…Social and Technological Changes

  • Homeland security

  • Less-than-lethal weapons

  • Information technology

    • DNA databases

    • Crime mapping


Innovations in policing social and technological changes homeland security
Innovations in Policing: Social and Technological Changes policing…Homeland Security

  • Role expansion

  • Racial and ethnic profiling

  • Immigration enforcement

  • Personnel shortages


Innovations in policing social and technological changes less than lethal weapons
Innovations in Policing: Social and Technological Changes policing…Less-than-lethal Weapons

  • Weapons that are not intended to kill

  • Protect police

  • Potential for misuse


Innovations in policing social and technological changes information technology
Innovations in Policing: Social and Technological Changes policing…Information Technology

  • DNA databases

    • NDIS

    • CODIS

  • Crime mapping

    • Geographic maps of where criminal offenses occur and where suspects and offenders live


Innovations in policing innovations from research
Innovations in policing policing…Innovations from Research

  • Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment

  • Rand Study of Detectives

  • The DARE program

  • Project Ceasefire


Innovations in policing research kansas city preventive patrol experiment
Innovations in Policing: Research policing…Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment

  • Examined the effectiveness of police patrol

  • Decreasing or increasing routine patrols had no effect on crime citizen fear of crime, or community attitudes toward the police.


Innovations in policing research rand study of detectives
Innovations in Policing: Research policing…Rand Study of Detectives

  • Examined how effective detectives are in solving crimes.

  • Suggested that a rethinking about the duties of detectives warrants new ways of doing investigative work.


Innovations in policing research dare
Innovations in Policing: Research policing…DARE

  • The Drug Abuse Resistance Education program was started 1983 by the LAPD and Los Angeles schools.

  • Recent evaluations suggest the program does little to prevent children from using drugs.


Innovations in policing research project ceasefire
Innovations in Policing: Research policing…Project Ceasefire

  • Part of the Boston Gun Project

  • An effort to stem youth violence

  • Youths were informed that further violence would not be tolerated.


Questions
Questions policing…

  • Why is Miranda v. Arizona important?

  • How are the police different from the military?

  • Which level of law enforcement agency handles most of the nation’s crime?

  • How has the focus on terrorism changed US law enforcement?


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