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Ecosystems & Communities: Organisms and their Environments. Ecosystems have living and non-living components. What are ecosystems?. What is an Ecosystem?. A community of biological organisms plus the non-living components with which the organisms interact.

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Ecosystems communities organisms and their environments

Ecosystems & Communities:Organisms and their Environments



What is an ecosystem
What is an Ecosystem?

  • A community of biological organisms plus the non-living components with which the organisms interact.

  • Living organisms are not self-sufficient. They need energy and raw materials.


What is an ecosystem1
What is an Ecosystem?

  • The biotic environment consists of all the living organisms within an area and is often referred to as a community.

  • The abiotic (aka non-living or physical) environment, often referred to as the organisms’ habitat,consists of:

    • the chemical resources of the soil, water, and air, such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus

    • the physical conditions, such as the temperature, salinity (salt level), moisture, humidity, and energy sources


Which scenario below exemplifies an ecosystem
Which scenario below exemplifies an ecosystem?

  • A group of organisms of the same species living in the same place at the same time

  • Different species interacting together at the same place and time

  • Different species interacting with each other at the same time in a desert

  • A smaller species living on a larger species in a mutually beneficial relationship


Take home message
Take-Home Message

  • An ecosystem is all of the living organisms in a habitat as well as the physical environment.

  • Ecosystems are found not just in obvious places such as ponds, deserts, and tropical rainforests but also in some unexpected places, like the digestive tracts of organisms or the shell of a beetle.


Challenge question
Challenge Question

  • An ecosystem is made of two components: the biotic environment, or community, consisting of the living organisms within an area, and the physical environment, or the habitat in which these organisms live.

  • A habitat consists of its chemical resources of the soil, water, and air as well as its physical conditions.

    • List some of the aspects that make up the physical conditions of a habitat.


Ecosystems have living and non living components1

Ecosystems have living and non-living components

15.2 A variety of biomes occur around the world, each determined by temperature and rainfall.


A variety of biomes occur around the world each determined by temperature and rainfall
A variety of biomes occur around the world, each determined by temperature and rainfall.

  • What is the average temperature?

  • What is the average rainfall (or other precipitation)?

  • Is the temperature relatively constant or does it vary seasonally?

  • Is the rainfall relatively constant or does it vary seasonally?


Tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest

  • forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth

  • ~ 125 to 660 cm yearly rainfall

  • temperature ranges from 20 °C - 34 °C

  • average humidity 77 - 88%

  • rainfall > 250 cm/year (may be a brief dry season)

  • almost all rain forests lie near the equator


Tropical rain forest1
Tropical Rain Forest

  • < 6% of Earth's land surface

  • > 50% of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests

  • produce ~40% of Earth's oxygen

  • ~70% of the plants in the rainforest are trees

  • ~25% of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants



Indicator species
Indicator Species

  • any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of the environment

    • may delineate an ecoregion 

    • could indicate an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition or climate change

  • can be among most sensitive species in a region; sometimes act as early warning to monitoring biologists



Tropical rain forest indicator animal species
Tropical Rain Forest – Indicator Animal Species

Gorilla 

Gorilla gorilla

Orangutan (Pongopygmaeus)

Spider Monkey

Atelesgeoffreyi


Tropical rain forest indicator animal species1
Tropical Rain Forest – Indicator Animal Species

2-toed sloth

Cholepushoffmanni

Three-toed Sloth (Bradypusvariegatus) with baby - Costa Rica


Tropical rain forest indicator animal species2
Tropical Rain Forest – Indicator Animal Species

Collared Aracari

Pteroglossustorquatus


Grasslands prairie
Grasslands (Prairie)

  • 2 different types

    • tall-grass: humid & very wet

    • short-grass: dry; hotter summers and colder winters than the tall-grass prairie

  • found in middle latitudes in the interiors of continents

  • either moist continental climates or dry subtropical climates

  • Argentina - grasslands are known as pampas

  • grasslands in southern hemisphere tend to get more precipitation than those in the northern hemisphere



Grasslands prairie2
Grasslands (Prairie)

  • temperatures range from -40° F  70° F

  • growing season and a dormant season

    • growing season is when there is no frost and plants can grow (which lasts from 100 to 175 days)

      • tropical and subtropical grasslands the length of the growing season is determined by how long the rainy season lasts

      • temperate grasslands the length of the growing season is determined by temperature (≥ 50° F)

    • dormant (not growing) season: nothing can grow because its too cold


Grasslands prairie3
Grasslands (Prairie)

  • average rainfall per year ranges from 10 - 30 inches

    • tropical and sub-tropical grasslands: average rainfall per year ranges from 25 - 60 inches

  • amount of rainfall is very important in determining which areas are grasslands

    • hard for trees to compete with grasses in places where the uppers layers of soil are moist during part of the year but where deeper layer of soil are always dry.



Grasslands indicator plant species
Grasslands– Indicator Plant Species

Old Field Habitat, Ohio

Ironweed (Vernoniasp.)with Hedge Bindweed Vine  (Calystegiasepium)

Grassland, North Dakota


Grasslands indicator plant species1
Grasslands– Indicator Plant Species

Ironweed (Vernoniasp.)

Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium purpureum


Grasslands indicator plant species2
Grasslands – Indicator Plant Species

Common Teasel

Dipsacusfullonum

Queen Anne's Lace (Daucuscarota)


Grasslands indicator animal species
Grasslands – Indicator Animal Species

Bison (Bison bison) on the range, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota


Grasslands indicator animal species1
Grasslands – Indicator Animal Species

Przewalski's horse (Equuscaballusprzewalskii), The Wilds, Ohio



Taiga
Taiga

  • Russian word for forest

  • largest biome in the world

  • Eurasia, North America

  • located just below the tundra biome

  • many coniferous trees

  • aka boreal forest; Boreal was the Greek goddess of the North Wind


Taiga1
Taiga

  • winter temperature range is -54 to -1° C (-65 to 30° F)

  • summer: -7° C (20° F) to 21° C (70° F)

  • summers are very short (50 - 100 frost free days)

  • average yearly precipitation: 30 - 85 cm (12 - 33 in)

  • main seasons are winter and summer

    • spring and autumn are very short

    • weather is either hot and humid or very cold



Taiga indicator plant species
Taiga – Indicator Plant Species

Balsam Fir

Abiesbalsamea

Black Spruce

Piceamariana


Taiga indicator plant species1
Taiga – Indicator Plant Species

White Poplar

Populus alba

Paper Birch

Betulapapyrifera

Jack Pine

Pinusbanksiana


Taiga indicator animal species
Taiga – Indicator Animal Species

American Black Bear

Ursusamericanus

Bald Eagle

Haliaeetusleucocephalus


Taiga indicator animal species1
Taiga – Indicator Animal Species

Snowshoe Rabbit

Lepusamericanus

Long-eared Owl

Aisootus


Desert
Desert

  • cover about one fifth of Earth's land surface

    • hot and dry: near Tropic of Cancer/Tropic of Capricorn

    • cold: near the Arctic

  • temperature

    • hot & dry: ~ 25° C to ~ 49° C

    • cold: -2 to 4° C (winter) 21 to 26° C (summer)

  • precipitation

    • hot & dry: very little rainfall and/or concentrated rainfall in short periods between long rainless periods (< 15 cm/year)

    • cold: 15 - 26 cm/year




Desert indicator plant species1
Desert – Indicator Plant Species

Fishhook Cactus

Mammillariamicrocarpa

Saguaro Cactus

Carnegieagigantea



Desert indicator animal species
Desert – Indicator Animal Species

Zebratail Lizard - Callisaurusdraconides


Desert indicator animal species1
Desert – Indicator Animal Species

Rock hyrax (Procaviacapensis)


Desert indicator animal species2
Desert – Indicator Animal Species

Bactrian Camel, Camelusbactrianus


Temperate deciduous forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest

  • temperature: 0 - 20 C

  • precipitation: ~ 50 – 200 cm/year



Temperate deciduous forest indicator plant species
Temperate Deciduous ForestIndicator Plant Species

Oaks (Quercus sp.)

Dutchman's-Breeches

Dicentracucullaria


Temperate deciduous forest indicator plant species1
Temperate Deciduous ForestIndicator Plant Species

Redbud

Cerciscanadensis

Sassafras

Sassafras albidum


Temperate deciduous forest succession
Temperate Deciduous Forest – Succession

  • orderly succession of communities to a climax community (biome)

  • two main types of succession:

    • primary succession: begins with bare rock exposed by geologic activity

    • secondary succession: begins on soil from which previous community has been removed (by fire, agriculture, etc.)

      • secondary succession can proceed much faster because the soil has been prepared by the previous community


Temperate deciduous forest indicator animal species
Temperate Deciduous ForestIndicator Animal Species

Box Turtle

American Toad

Bufoamericanus


Temperate deciduous forest indicator animal species1
Temperate Deciduous ForestIndicator Animal Species

Eastern Gray Squirrel

Sciuruscarolinensis

Eastern Chipmunk

Tamiasstriatus


Temperate deciduous forest indicator animal species2
Temperate Deciduous ForestIndicator Animal Species

Yellow-breasted chat

Icteriavirens


Tundra
Tundra

  • annual average temperature < 5 C

  • precipitation (mostly in the form of snow) < 100 mm/year

  • summer is brief

    • temperatures above freezing last only a few weeks at most

    • "warm" summer coincides with periods of almost 24 hour daylight, so plant growth can be explosive 


Tundra1
Tundra

Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska


Tundra indicator plant species
Tundra – Indicator Plant Species

Arctic Tundra Wildflowers - Alaska


Tundra indicator plant species1
Tundra – Indicator Plant Species

Polytrichum Moss

(photographed in Ohio, not on the Tundra)

Lichen


Tundra indicator animal species
Tundra – Indicator Animal Species

Reindeer

Rangifertarandus


Tundra indicator animal species1
Tundra – Indicator Animal Species

 Caribou On Autumn Tundra Denali National Park Alaska


Savanna
Savanna

  • rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees

    • found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome

    • not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests

    • found in a wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests

  • warm temperature year round

  • very long dry season (winter): ~ 10 cm rain; none at all from Dec - Feb

  • very wet season (summer): ~ 35-65 cm rain



Savanna indicator plant species
Savanna – Indicator Plant Species

BaobabAdansoniadigitata

UmbrellaThorn AcaciaAcacia tortillis


Savanna indicator animal species
Savanna – Indicator Animal Species

Savanna ElephantLoxodontaafricana

Black MambaDendroaspispolylepis

LionPanthera leo


Chaparral
Chaparral

  • winter: mild and moist, but not rainy

  • summer: very hot and dry.

  • annual temperature range: between -1° and 38° C

  • annual precipitation: ~ 25-45 cm, mostly in the winter



Chaparral indicator plant species
Chaparral – Indicator Plant Species

Olive TreeOleaeuropaea

Blue OakQuercusdouglasii

Common SagebrushArtemisia tridentata


Chaparral indicator animal species
Chaparral – Indicator Animal Species

Black-tailed JackrabbitLepuscalifornicus

Golden JackalCanis aureus

 Spotted SkunkSpilogalegracilis


The freshwater biome
The Freshwater Biome

  • low salt concentration — usually less than 1%

  • plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean)

  • 3 different types of freshwater regions:

    • ponds and lakes

    • streams and rivers

    • wetlands


The freshwater biome ponds and lakes
The Freshwater Biome – Ponds and Lakes

From left: a view across Manzanita Lake toward Mt. Lassen, California; a forest pond near Donnelly, Idaho; a Great Blue Heron; Paranagat Lake, southeastern Nevada.


The freshwater biome streams and rivers
The Freshwater Biome – Streams and Rivers

From left: McArthur-Burney Falls State Park, California; trout; Green River, Utah; Brooks River, Alaska.


The freshwater biome wetlands
The Freshwater Biome - Wetlands

From left: Pescadero Marsh, California; coastal marsh at Umpqua Dunes, Oregon; trees and bogs on Esther Island, Alaska.


The marine biome
The Marine Biome

  • cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface

  • marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide

  • evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land

  • 3 different types of marine regions:

    • oceans

    • coral reefs

    • estuaries


The marine biome oceans
The Marine Biome - Oceans

From left: mussels, worms, and a spider crab at a hydrocarbon seep community in the Gulf of Mexico; a sea fan and brain coral in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary; a school of Atlantic amberjack off North Carolina.


The marine biome coral reefs
The Marine Biome – Coral Reefs

From left: reef life in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea; a reef at Fanning Island atoll in the central Pacific; a reef in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.


The marine biome estuaries
The Marine Biome - Estuaries

From left: Mangrove roots, south Florida; wetlands and tidal streams in the Ashe Island area, ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Carolina; a salt marsh in Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Carolina.


Ecological notes
Ecological Notes

These are the biomes, in order of their productivity (highest first)

  • estuaries and tropical rain forest  (highest)

  • temperate forest

  • agricultural land

  • temperate grassland

  • lakes and streams

  • coastal zone

  • tundra

  • open ocean

  • desert   (lowest)


Ecological notes1
Ecological Notes

In order to be productive and have a lot of living material standing around (biomass), an ecosystem has to have 4 basic necessities for plant life to thrive (if there are enough plants, the ecosystem will also support a lot of animals).  The four things are:

  • Sunlight

  • Nutrients

  • Warm temperatures

  • Water



Take home message1
Take-Home Message

  • Biomes are the major ecological communities of earth, characterized mostly by the vegetation present.

  • Different biomes result from differences in temperature and precipitation, and the extent to which they vary from season to season.


Challenge question1
Challenge Question

  • Terrestrial biomes are determined by the temperature and precipitation amounts as well as whether those factors are constant or vary by season.

  • By contrast, how are aquatic biomes determined?


Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems

Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems

Energy flows from producers to consumers.



First stop primary producers1
First Stop: Primary Producers

  • ecosystem: producers or consumers

    • primary producers: plants, algae (some), bacteria

      • convert light energy from sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis

      • chemical energy = food

    • consumers eat or absorb their food

      • energy stored in chemical bonds of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid molecules is captured and harnessed for consumers’ own movement, reproduction, and growth


Second stop primary consumers the herbivores
Second Stop: Primary Consumers – the Herbivores


Third stop secondary consumers the carnivores
Third Stop: Secondary Consumers – the Carnivores


Fourth stop tertiary consumers the top carnivores
Fourth Stop: Tertiary Consumers – the “Top” Carnivores





Food chains food webs
Food Chains & Food Webs

  • A change in one link in a food chain will affect the other links.

  • The table on the next slide gives one example of a food chain and the trophic levels represented in it:




Energy flows through a food web
Energy Flows through a Food Web

Losses at every “step” in a food chain

Inefficiency of energy transfers


A grasshopper eats a plant. A mouse eats the grasshopper. A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

  • Producer

  • Primary consumer

  • Secondary consumer

  • Tertiary consumer

  • Quaternary consumer

  • 4 and 5


Take home message2
Take-home message A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

Energy from the sun passes through an ecosystem in several steps.

First, it is converted to chemical energy in photosynthesis.

Herbivores then consume the primary producers, the herbivores are consumed by carnivores, and the carnivores, in turn, may be consumed by top carnivores.


Take home message3
Take-home message A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

Detritivores and decomposers extract energy from organic waste and the remains of organisms that have died.

At each step in a food chain, some usable energy is lost as heat.


Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems1

Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

Energy pyramids reveal the inefficiency of food chains.


Biomass
Biomass A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

  • biomass: total weight of all living organisms in a given area

  • only about 10% of the plants in an ecosystem is converted into biomass

  • Food Energy Pyramid

    • flow of energy through a food chain

    • trophic level: position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it

  • African savannas and grasslands sustain more species of higher-order carnivores than any other terrestrial ecosystem


Food energy pyramids
Food Energy Pyramids A snake eats the mouse. A hawk could eat the snake or the mouse. In this food web, how would we categorize the hawk?

flow of energy through a food chain

trophic level: position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it


You go out to eat at a fancy restaurant. You have a salad, salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

  • Salad

  • Salmon

  • Ice cream

  • 2 and 3


Take home message4
Take-home message salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

Energy from the sun passes through an ecosystem in several steps known as trophic levels.

Energy pyramids reveal that the biomass of primary producers in an ecosystem tends to be far greater than the biomass of herbivores.

The biomass transferred at each step along the food chain tends to be only about 10% of the biomass of the organisms being consumed, due to energy lost in cellular respiration.

As a consequence of this inefficiency, food chains rarely exceed four levels.


Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems2

Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

Essential chemicals cycle through ecosystems.


Chemical reservoirs
Chemical Reservoirs salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

Each chemical is stored in a non-living part of the environment.

Organisms acquire the chemical from the reservoir, a non-living part of the environment.

The chemical cycles through the food chain (biogeochemical cycles).

Eventually, the chemical is returned to the reservoir.


The most important chemical cycles

The Most Important Chemical Cycles salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

Carbon

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Sulfur


Carbon Cycle Game salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?


Fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

  • created when large numbers of organisms die and are buried in sediment lacking oxygen

  • In absence of oxygen, at high pressures, and after very long periods of time, organic remains are ultimately transformed into coal, oil, and natural gas

  • burning coal, oil, and natural gas releases large amounts of carbon dioxide

    • increases average CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

    • current level of CO2 in the atmosphere is the highest it has been in almost half a million years


Global CO salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?2 levels are rising in general, but they also exhibit a sharp rise and fall within each year – why?


Fertilizers
Fertilizers salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

Because it is necessary for the production of every plant protein, and because all nitrogen must first be made usable by bacteria, plant growth is often limited by nitrogen levels in the soil.

For this reason, most fertilizers contain nitrogen in a form usable by plants.


Sulfur cycle
Sulfur Cycle salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

component of protein 

cycles in both a gas and sedimentary cycle

source : earth's crust

enters the atmosphere as  hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during fossil fuel combustion, volcanic eruptions, gas exchange at ocean surfaces, decomposition


Sulfur cycle1
Sulfur Cycle salmon, and for dessert ice cream! Which part of the meal was the most energy efficient food for you to eat?

H2S is immediately oxidized to sulfur dioxide (SO2) 

SO2 + water vapor  H2SO4 (falls to earth in rain)  

sulfur in soluble form is taken up by plant roots, incorporated into amino acids such as cysteine

travels through food chain

eventually released through decomposition


How is carbon recycled back to the atmosphere in the carbon cycle
How is carbon recycled back to the atmosphere in the carbon cycle?

It is “fixed” by bacteria.

It is a product of cellular respiration.

Burning of fossil fuels.

2 and 3.

All of the above.


Why do commercial fertilizers usually contain usable forms of nitrogen and phosphorous
Why do commercial fertilizers usually contain usable forms of nitrogen and phosphorous?

These chemicals are not efficiently recycled in the soil.

Nitrogen and phosphorous need to be “fixed” by bacteria or the plant.

Nitrogen and phosphorous are found at high levels in the atmosphere but not in the soil.

Nitrogen and phosphorous only enter the soil through erosion.


Take home message5
Take-home message of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Chemicals essential to life—including carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus—cycle through ecosystems.

They are usually captured from the atmosphere, soil, or water by growing organisms; passed from one trophic level to the next as organisms eat other organisms; and returned to the environment through respiration, decomposition, and erosion.

These cycles can be disrupted as human activities significantly increase the amounts of the chemicals utilized or released to the environment.


Symbiotic relationships
Symbiotic Relationships of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Symbiosis: close relationship between organisms of two different species

At least one participant gains some sort of benefit (usually nutritional)

Types of symbiosis:

Parasitism

Commensalism

Mutualism

Predation


Parasitism
Parasitism of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Parasite derives nutrition from the host

This harms the host but a true parasite does not usually kill its host (directly)


Ectoparasites
Ectoparasites of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Remain outside the host

Ticks, fleas, leeches


Endoparasites
Endoparasites of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Live inside the host’s body

Tapeworms, malarial parasites


Parasite transmission
Parasite Transmission of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Many parasites live on or in a single organism

Some will alternate between 2 or more host species

Vertical transmission – from mother  offspring

Horizontal transmission – between members of a population

Direct contact (head lice)

Vectors (mosquitos)


Commensalism
Commensalism of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Neither species is totally dependent on the other

One benefits – no effect on the other

Feeding or protection

Porcelain anemone crabs and anemones


Mutualism
Mutualism of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Both species benefit

Food or shelter

Examples:

Plants and microbes (rhizobium in root nodules)

Plants and fungi (orchids and mycorrhizae)

Protists and fungi (lichen)

Plants and insects (pollination)

Animals and bacteria (ruminants)

Animals and other animals (crocodiles and plover birds)


Rhizobium
Rhizobium of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Rhizobium in root nodules of certain plants convert nitrogen in soil to usable form.


Orchid mycorrhizae
Orchid/ of nitrogen and phosphorous?Mycorrhizae

Fungi aid the plant in the uptake of nutrients.

Fungi ingest some of the food from plant photosynthesis


Lichen
Lichen of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Most of the lichen is composed of fungal filaments, but living among the filaments are algal cells, usually from a green alga or a cyanobacterium.

The lichen fungus provides its partner(s) a benefit (protection) and gains nutrients in return.


Ruminants
Ruminants of nitrogen and phosphorous?

Ruminants are characterized by their four-chambered stomach and "cud-chewing" behavior. Cud is a food bolus that is regurgitated, rechewed, and reswallowed. The rumen is a large fermentation vat containing billions of microorganisms, including bacteria and protozoa, which allow ruminants to digest fibrous feeds such as grass and hay that other animals cannot efficiently utilize.


Crocodiles plover birds
Crocodiles & Plover Birds of nitrogen and phosphorous?

The bird gets into the crocodile's mouth and picks out the tiny bits of food stuck in his teeth, then eats it (the tiny bits).

This cleans the crocodile's teeth and keeps his mouth fresh and free from infections.


Thank you to
THANK YOU TO… of nitrogen and phosphorous?

  • http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org

  • http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/biome_main.htm

  • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/

  • http://www.tburg.k12.ny.us/mcdonald/foodch1.htm

  • http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/F/FoodChains.html

  • http://www.slideshare.net/musselburghgrammar/symbiotic-relationships

  • http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030753&mode=view&userGroupName=catholiccenhs&jsid=71a9d03928f7c22aa5cc70824a0bbc99


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