Are You Smarter Than An 8 th Grader?. For separate ecosystems to be classified as the same type of biome, they must — A) have deciduous forests B) be located along the equator C) have similar organisms and climates D) be at least one hundred square meters in area. Biomes.
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Are You Smarter Than An 8th Grader?
For separate ecosystems to be classified as the same type of biome, they must —
A) have deciduous forests
B) be located along the equator
C) have similar organisms and climates
D) be at least one hundred square meters in area
Ecologists group Earth's diverse environments into biomes.
Biome is a large area that exhibits similar climate, plants, and animals.
Climate has 2 maincomponents
Temperature and Precipitation help determine the type of vegetation in an ecosystem.
As temperature and precipitation decrease, the climate of an area becomes drier and vegetation becomes sparser.
Latitude and altitude affect
climate and vegetation in similar ways.
Can any organism (plant or animal)
live in any biome?
Adaptationis a process in which a species becomes better suited to survive in an environment.
Small leaves or spines on desert plants conserve water.
Thick waxy skin holds in water.
Shallow root systemsoak up rain water quickly before it evaporates.
Xerophyte – plants structurally adapted for life and growth with limited water supply.
Succulent – plants like cacti with fleshy tissues for storing moisture
Deep rootshelp plants survive prairie fires.
Narrow leaveslose less water than broad leaves.
Flexible stems bend in the wind.
Small plants grow close to the groundfor warmth.
Dark colored flowers absorb heat from the sun.
Fuzzy stems provide protection from wind.
The Capirona tree employs a unique adaptation to parasites. Each year, its bark sloughs off carrying with it an assorted variety of fungi, molds, insects, and other invasive plants.
Pointed drip tipschannel rain to the soil and help keep the leaf blades dry.
Aerial plants gather nourishment from the air using 'air roots'
Thick bark protects trees and dropping leaves in winter conserves water and nutrients during cold winters.
Animal Adaptation – any behavioral or physical
characteristic of an animal that helps
it survive in its environment.
Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays)
-Large size deters predators, makes metabolism more efficient
-Small body size allows concealment, exploitation of small areas
-cutaneous (skin) loss
-excretory (urine/feces) loss
-respiratory (breathing -- fewer breaths per minute means less water lost per breath and lower metabolism)
*have the ability to convert the dry seeds they eat into water.
*have specialized kidneys which allow them to dispose of waste materials with very little output of water.
-Cold vs Warm blooded
-Cold blooded (Ectothermic)animals have low energy overhead but are inactive in cool and cold conditions
-Warm blooded (Endothermic)animals have high energy overhead but can be very active even at low temperatures
Body Temperature Regulation:
Endotherm vs. Ectotherm
Protective coloration and protective resemblance allow an animal to blend into its environment = camouflage
Their camouflage makes it hard for enemies to single out individuals.
Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act like another animal to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous.
The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly.
Migration- - an animal or group of animals moving from one region to another and then back again.
Hibernation -- deep sleep in which animal’s body temp drops, body activities are slowed to conserve energy.
Layers of a Rainforest
-Timber production (mostly for export and fuel)
-Slash-and-burn practices– for agriculture and cattle ranches
Logging operations and development of roads pose a big threat to tiger habitat
Deforestation for palm oil production in Malaysian Borneo.
Prairiesin North America, steppes of Russia and Ukraine, pampas of South America
(40 – 100 cm snow annually), with summer warm, rainy, and humid
Sinking land can damage buildings and infrastructure such as roads, airports, and water and sewer pipes. It also affects ecosystems
U.S. Global Change Research Program (2009).