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Ecology. WHAT IS ECOLOGY?. Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer Ecology is a science of relationships. Biosphere. Ecosystem. Community. Population. Organism.

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What is ecology
WHAT IS ECOLOGY?

Ecology-the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer

Ecology is a science of relationships


Biosphere

Ecosystem

Community

Population

Organism


  • Organism -any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual.

  • The lowest level of organization


  • POPULATION

  • a group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed

  • Produce fertile offspring

  • Compete with each other for resources (food, mates, shelter, etc.)


Community -several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent.


Ecosystem -populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)


  • Biosphere - life supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water.

  • The highest level of organization

  • All organisms found here


Ii biomes and aquatic life systems
II. Biomes and Aquatic Life Systems

A. Biomes:

  • Land portion of the biosphere

  • Distinct climate and specific life-forms adapted for life within that climate.

    Climate - long-term patterns of weather is the primary factor determining the type of life

    B. Aquatic life zones:

  • Marine and Freshwater


Ecosystem concepts and components

Desert

Coastal chaparral

and scrub

Coniferous

forest

Coniferous

forest

Prairie

grassland

Deciduous

forest

Appalachian

Mountains

Mississippi

River Valley

Great

Plains

Rocky

Mountains

Great

American

Desert

Sierra

Nevada

Mountain

Coastal

mountain

ranges

15,000 ft

10,000 ft

Average annual precipitaion

5,000 ft

100-125 cm (40-50 in.)

75-100 cm (30-40 in.)

50-75 cm (20-30 in.)

25-50 cm (10-20 in.)

below 25 cm (0-10 in.)

Ecosystem Concepts and Components

Fig. 4.9, p. 76


C ecotone
C. Ecotone

  • Transitional zone between two ecosystems

  • A mixture of species found in both ecosystems as well as organisms that are unique to the ecotones.


Ecosystem boundaries ecotones

Land zone

Transition zone

Aquatic zone

Number

of species

Species in land zone

Species in aquatic zone

Species in transition

zone only

Ecosystem Boundaries: Ecotones

Fig. 4.10, p. 77



What do you mean by environment
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY ENVIRONMENT? this aquarium?

The environment is made up of two factors:

  • Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the Earth

  • Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)


Abiotic factors
Abiotic this aquarium? Factors

  • The non living factors, called abiotic , are the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment

  • Examples: Temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, oxygen concentration, amount of sunlight, available nitrogen, and precipitation


Niche this aquarium? -the role a species plays in a community; its total way of life

Habitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life

Habitat vs. Niche


A niche is determined by the tolerance limitations of an organism, or a limiting factor.

Limiting factor- any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.

Habitat vs. Niche


A. Major Non-Living Components organism, or a limiting factor.

  • Each population has a “Range of Tolerance” to abiotic factors.

  • These are the minimum and maximum levels that can be tolerated by an organism.

    *Limiting Factors of Water;

    D.O. Salinity

    Light Penetration Nutrients

    *Limiting Factors of Land;

    Precipitation Temp.

    Latitude Sunlight


Habitat vs. Niche organism, or a limiting factor.

  • Examples of limiting factors -

    • Amount of water

    • Amount of food

    • Temperature

    • Amount of space

    • Availability of mates


Lower limit organism, or a limiting factor.

of tolerance

Upper limit

of tolerance

No

organisms

Few

organisms

Few

organisms

No

organisms

Abundance of organisms

Population size

Optimum range

Zone of

intolerance

Zone of

physiological stress

Zone of

physiological stress

Zone of

intolerance

Low

High

Temperature


Feeding relationships
Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

  • There are 3 main types of feeding relationships

    1. Producer - Consumer

    2. Predator - Prey

    3. Parasite - Host


Feeding relationships1
Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

Producer- all autotrophs (plants),they trap energy from the sun

  • Bottom of the food chain


Feeding relationships2
Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

Consumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy

  • Herbivores

  • Carnivores

  • Omnivores

  • Decomposers


Feeding relationships3
Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

CONSUMERS

  • Primary consumers

    • Eat plants

    • Herbivores

  • Secondary, tertiary … consumers

    • Prey animals

    • Carnivores


  • Feeding relationships4
    Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Consumer-Carnivores-eat meat

    • Predators

      • Hunt prey

        animals for food.


    Feeding relationships5
    Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Consumer- Carnivores- eat meat

    • Scavengers

      • Feed on carrion,

        dead animals


    Feeding relationships6
    Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plants

    and animals


    Feeding relationships7
    Feeding Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Consumer- Decomposers

    • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed


    Symbiotic relationships
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    3 Types of symbiosis:

    1. Commensalism

    2. Parasitism

    3. Mutualism

    Symbiosis- two speciesliving together


    Symbiotic relationships1
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Commensalism-

    one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

    Ex. orchids on a tree

    Epiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called xerophyte, air plant.


    Symbiotic relationships2
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Commensalism-

    one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

    Ex. polar bears and cyanobacteria


    Symbiotic relationships3
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Parasitism-

    one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)

    • Parasite-Host relationship


    Symbiotic relationships4
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Parasitism- parasite-host

    Ex. lampreys,

    leeches, fleas,

    ticks, tapeworm


    Symbiotic relationships5
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Mutualism-

    beneficial to both species

    Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp


    Symbiotic relationships6
    Symbiotic Relationships organism, or a limiting factor.

    Mutualism-

    beneficial to both species

    Ex. lichen


    • This relationship enables each to tolerate harsh conditions where neither could survive alone. In this partnership, the fungus furnishes the alga with water, prevents overexposure to sunlight, and provides simple mineral nutrients, while the photosynthesizing alga supplies food to the fungus even if no other organic material is available.


    = 1 species where neither could survive alone.


    Trophic levels
    Trophic Levels where neither could survive alone.

    • Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.

    • Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.


    Trophic levels1
    Trophic Levels where neither could survive alone.

    Biomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.

    • As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease.

    • Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.


    Trophic levels2
    Trophic Levels where neither could survive alone.

    E

    N

    E

    R

    G

    Y

    Tertiary consumers- top carnivores

    Secondary consumers-small carnivores

    Primary consumers- Herbivores

    Producers- Autotrophs


    Pyramid of energy diagram used to show the flow of energy from one trophic level to another
    Pyramid of Energy where neither could survive alone. – Diagram used to show the flow of energy from one trophic level to another.


    Ecological efficiency
    Ecological Efficiency: where neither could survive alone.

    • % of usable energy transferred from level to level

    • Typically 5-20%

    • Measured as Biomass – the dry weight of tissue and other organic matter

      The shape of the Pyramid of Energy Flow Explains why:

      1.) So few top carnivores

      2.) Why these species are the first to suffer when there is disruption

      3.) Why they are vulnerable to extinction


    Trophic levels3
    Trophic Levels where neither could survive alone.

    Food chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem


    Trophic levels4
    Trophic Levels where neither could survive alone.

    Food web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level

    • Represents a network of interconnected food chains


    Food chain Food web where neither could survive alone.

    (just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)


    Nutrient Cycles where neither could survive alone.

    • Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment.

    • 5cycles to investigate:

      • 1. Water cycle

      • 2. Carbon cycle

      • 3. Nitrogen cycle

      • 4. Phosphorus

      • 5. Oxygen


    • Water cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    • Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation


    Water cycle- where neither could survive alone.


    • Carbon cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    • Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.


    Carbon cycle- where neither could survive alone.


    Nitrogen cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly 78%-80% of air.

    Organisms can not use it in that form.

    Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen into usable forms.


    Nitrogen cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    Only in certain bacteria and industrial technologies can fix nitrogen.

    Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which can be used to make organic compounds like amino acids.

    N2 NH4+


    Nitrogen cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria:

    Some live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of the legume family (e.g., soybeans, clover, peanuts).


    • Nitrogen cycle- where neither could survive alone.

    • Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live free in the soil.

    • Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are essential to maintaining the fertility of semi-aquatic environments like rice paddies.


    Nitrogen Cycle where neither could survive alone.

    Atmospheric nitrogen

    Lightning

    Denitrification by bacteria

    Animals

    Nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Plants

    Decomposers

    Nitrification by bacteria

    Nitrites

    Nitrates

    Ammonium


    Phosphorus cycle
    Phosphorus Cycle where neither could survive alone.

    Phosphorus moves from phosphate deposited in rock, to the soil, to living organisms, and finally to the ocean.


    Oxygen cycle
    Oxygen Cycle where neither could survive alone.

    • A plant does photosynthesis to let off Oxygen for organisms to use

    • The humans use up the oxygen through respiration and let off CO2.

    • The CO2 is then passed from the humans to the plants again.


    • Toxins in food chains- where neither could survive alone.

    • While energy decreases as it moves up the food chain, toxins increase in potency.

    • This is called biological magnification

    Ex: DDT & Bald Eagles


    Population dynamics
    Population Dynamics where neither could survive alone.

    • The study of short‐ and long‐term changes in the number of individuals for a given population, as affected by birth, death, immigration, and emigration

    • birth, death, immigration, and emigration.


    Battle at kruger
    Battle at Kruger where neither could survive alone.

    • Kruger National Park is one of the largest game reserves in Africa. It covers an area of 19,485 square kilometres (7,523 sq mi)

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LU8DDYz68kM


    I population dynamics
    I. Population Dynamics where neither could survive alone.

    A. Characteristics of a population

    1. Size - number of individuals

    2. Density - number of individuals per space

    3. Age Distribution – portions of individuals of each age


    4. where neither could survive alone. Dispersion – spatial patterns of organisms


    B factors that govern population size
    B. Factors that govern population size where neither could survive alone.

    Births

    Immigration

    Deaths

    Emigration


    Models for population growth rates a exponential growth model
    Models for Population Growth Rates where neither could survive alone. A. Exponential Growth Model:

    Observed in populations with few or no resource limitations.

    Starts slow and then increases

     “J-shaped curve”


    Choice b
    CHOICE B where neither could survive alone.

    • $18,446,74 4,073,709,551,615 dollars!!


    Exponential growth
    Exponential Growth where neither could survive alone.


    Exponential growth j shape curve often described in terms of
    Exponential Growth (J-shape Curve) where neither could survive alone. Often described in terms of…

    1. Biotic Potential:

    How large a population could grow to if there were unlimited resources

    Populations typically can’t grow exponentially forever.

    2. Environmental Resistance:

    All of the living and non-living

    factors working to hold a

    population size down.


    Carrying capacity k

    2.0 where neither could survive alone.

    1.5

    Number of sheep (millions)

    1.0

    .5

    1800

    1825

    1850

    1875

    1900

    1925

    Carrying Capacity “K”

    Number of individuals of a given species that can be sustained in a given space indefinitely

    Determined by biotic potential and environmental resistance working against each other


    Populations can crash
    Populations can Crash where neither could survive alone.

    • Limiting factors restrain the growth of a population

    • As the population grows, competition for resources increases. Thus, reproduction shrinks over time.

    • This may lead to species extinction


    Reindeer in alaska
    Reindeer in Alaska where neither could survive alone.

    2,000

    1,500

    Number of reindeer

    1,000

    500

    1910

    1920

    1930

    1940

    1950

    Fig. 9.6, p. 201

    Year


    SHOW VIDEO where neither could survive alone.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hO-vCPuuQQ

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfbQA-Krx9Q


    What is ecological succession
    What is Ecological Succession? where neither could survive alone.

    • Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area

    • Can be primary or secondary

    • The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time


    Primary succession
    Primary Succession where neither could survive alone.

    • Begins in a place without any soil:

      • Sides of volcanoes

      • Landslides

      • Flooding

  • First, lichens that do not need soil to survive grow on rocks

  • Next, mosses grow to hold newly made soil

  • Known as PIONEER SPECIES


  • Pioneer species
    Pioneer Species where neither could survive alone.

    Low, growing moss plants trap moisture and prevent soil erosion

    Lichens break down rock to form soil.


    Primary succession1
    Primary Succession where neither could survive alone.

    • Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil


    Primary succession2
    Primary Succession where neither could survive alone.

    • The simple plants die, adding more organic material (nutrients to the soil)

    • The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over


    Primary succession3
    Primary Succession where neither could survive alone.

    • These plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soil

    • Shrubs and trees can survive now


    Secondary succession
    Secondary Succession where neither could survive alone.

    • Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms

    • Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession

    • Example: after forest fires


    Climax community
    Climax Community where neither could survive alone.

    • A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the successionprocess

    • Does not always mean big trees

      • Grasses in prairies

      • Cacti in deserts


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