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2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal Technologies for Wireless Communications Working Group Herbert S. Bennett Semiconductor Electronics Division, NIST Gaithersburg, MD On Behalf of the RF and AMS ITWG Members 18 July 2007.

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2007

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal

Technologies for Wireless Communications

Working Group

Herbert S. Bennett

Semiconductor Electronics Division, NIST

Gaithersburg, MD

On Behalf of the RF and AMS ITWG Members

18 July 2007


Wireless ITWG Scope

  • Use wireless ICs as technology driver

  • Roadmap technical requirements, challenges and potential solutions for RF and AMS IC technologies in wireless applications such as cellular phones, WLAN, WPAN, automotive radar, phased array systems and other emerging standards

  • Address intersection of silicon with III-V compound semiconductors

  • 2007 Roadmap added MtM focus


Wireless ITWG Methodology

Communication System

- Protocols/Standards

- Frequencies 0.8 – 100GHz

- Architecture

Circuit Figures-of-Merit

- Dynamic Range, Bandwidth

- Gain, Noise Figure, Linearity

- Phase Noise

- Output Power, Gain, PAE

- Power Consumption- Thermal Management

  • Device Figures-of-Merit

  • Mismatch, Gain

  • - fT & fMAX

  • - NFmin & 1/f noise

  • - Breakdown

  • - Quality factor, linearity

  • - Power density, PAE

  • - COST

Wireless Roadmap

Material systems : Si, SiGe, GaAS, InP, SiC, GaN

Device structures : MOSFET, LDMOS, HBT, MESFET, PHEMT, MHEMT, passives,

And More than Moore - Embedded passives and RFMEMs


GaN - HEMT

InP – HBT, HEMT GaAs MEHMT

GaAs - HBT, PHEMT

SiGe – HBT, BiCMOS

Si – RF CMOS

SiC - MESFET

Si-LDMOS

0.8 Hz

2 GHz

5 GHz

10 GHz

28 GHz

77 GHz

94 GHz

GSM

CDMA ISM

PDC

GPS

SAT

Radio

DCS

PCS

DECT

CDMA

WLAN

802.11b/g

HomeRF

Bluetooth

SAT

TV

WLAN

802.11a

SAT TV

WLAN

Hyperlink UWB

LMDS

WLAN

AUTO

RADAR

All Weather

Landing; Imaging

Wireless Communication

Application Spectrum

Roadmap mm-Wave Tables

Applications drive Noise Figure, Power, Power Added Efficiency, Linearity and Cost


2007 Wireless ITWG Organization

Pascal Ancey ST Micro

Joost. Van Beek NXP

Herbert Bennett NIST

Pascal Chevalier ST Micro

Julio Costa RFMD

Stefaan Decoutere IMEC

Erwin Hijzen NXP

Digh Hisamoto Hitachi

Dave Howard Jazz

W. Margaret Huang Freescale

Anthony Immorlica BAE Systems

Andre Jansman NXP

Snezana Jenei Infineon

Jay John Freescale

Alvin Joseph IBM

Takahiro Kamei Oki

Dawn Wang IBM

David Chow HRL

Bobby Brar TSC

Tom Kazior Raytheon

Yukihiro Kiyota Sony

Sebastian Liau ITRI

Ginkou Ma ITRI

Mel Miller Freescale

Jan-Erik Mueller Infineon

Hansu Oh Samsung

Jack Pekarik IBM

Marco Racanelli Jazz

Bernard Sautreuil ST Micro

Sam Shichijo TI

Albert Wang IIT

Chuck Weitzel Freescale

Geoffrey Yeap Qualcomm

Peter Zampardi Skyworks

Bin Zhao Freescale

Herbert Zirath Chalmers U

2007 New members


2007 Organization

Chair: Margaret Huang, Freescale 36 Members /last year 27

Co-chairs: Jan-Erik Mueller, Infineon 20 US, 10 Europe, 6 AP

Bin Zhao, Freescale

Editor: Herbert Bennett, NIST

  • Subgroup CMOS Jack Pekarik, IBM

  • Subgroup Bipolar Marco Racanelli, Jazz

  • Subgroup Passives Sam Shichijo, TI

  • Subgroup PA Peter Zampardi, Skyworks

    Chuck Weitzel, Freescale

  • Subgroup mm-Wave Tony Immorlica, BAE Systems

  • Subgroup MEMS Dave Howard, Jazz


2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • CMOS

    • Performance Analog CMOS

      • Continue linkage to Low Standby Power (LSTP) CMOS roadmap with 1 year lag (Supply Voltage, Tox, Gate length )

      • RF & AMS parameters including: Ft/Fmax. Noise Fig, Gm/Gds, 1/f noise and Vt matching

    • Precision Analog CMOS

      • Thick gate oxide CMOS

      • No update for 2007

    • New 2007, CMOS requirements for mm-Wave

      • Link to High Performance CMOS roadmap with 2 year lag

      • Added RF parameters: Ft/Fmax. Noise Fig @ 24GHz & 60GHz


2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • Bipolar

    • 3 Separate Bipolar devices:

      • High Voltage – “typical” low-cost bipolar device

      • High Speed – mm-Wave applications

      • PA – power amplifier applications

    • Focus on high speed and PA bipolar as drivers

    • 2007 reduce high speed device Ft scaling (delay 300 Ghz by 1 yr and 500 GHz by 5 yrs). Adjust Fmax, JC and BVCEO scaling accordingly.

    • Revised PA NPN parameters, aligned to PA battery voltage

    • Noise Figure @ 60 GHz

  • On-Chip Passives

    • 3 applications: Analog, RF and Power Amplifier

    • Devices include: Capacitors, Resistors, Inductors, Varactors

    • 2007 add MOM RF capacitor


2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • Power Amplifier

    • Handset : HBT & FET, III-V and Si

      • 2007 add end-of-life battery voltage, FET/HBT integration for integrated bias circuit design, on-chip switch integration (for stage by-passing).

      • Emerging markets driving PA to a cost/performance driven and a cost only driven applications. Cost-only market driving silicon single chip alternatives.

    • Base Station: Cellular and emerging WiMAX

      • Required relatively high RF power, LDMOS & III-V FET

      • 2007 drop SiC device, , displaced by GaN device

  • mm-Wave

    • Dominated by III-V (GaAs PHEMT, InP HEMT, GaAs MHEMT, GaN HEMT, InP HBT ), plus SiGe HBT and RF CMOS (2007)

    • Low noise amplifier and power devices


MtM Focus of Wireless

Multi-Standard Applications

  • Address multi-band, multi-mode, portable applications

  • Present device roadmap alone does not enable software defined radio (SDR); needs to:

    • Address digital radio design requirements

    • Address Hybrid approach with wideband amplified and matching, filtering and switching network

      • module assembly and embedded passives requirements (new table)

      • RFMEMS requirements (new table)


Embeded Passives Table

  • Consider 3 elements on various module substrates such as organic and low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC):

    • Resistor

    • Capacitor

    • Inductor

  • Requirements for example in:

    • Tolerance

    • Temperature linearity

    • Resonance frequency

    • Sheet resistance

    • Breakdown voltage


RF MEMS Table

  • Focus on 4 elements:

    • BAW

    • Resonator

    • Switch capacitive contact

    • Switch metal contact

  • Requirements in:

    • Design tool

    • Packaging

    • Performance driver

    • Cost driver


Wireless Working Group Key Considerations

  • Traditional Roadmap Drivers:

  • Cost (scaling, die size, part count)

  • Power Consumption

  • Chip Functionality

  • Non-traditional Roadmap Drivers:

  • Government regulations determining system spectrum and specifications

  • Standards and protocols drive frequencies, power and performance

  • Color coding “Manufacturing solutions exist” does not imply product volume shipment per ITRS definition

  • RF module form factor (size and height requirements)

  • Cost / Performance Drives Integration:

  • Multi-band Multi-mode system applications (embedded passives, filter, switch integration)

  • Signal isolation and integrity

  • Analog Shrink (power supply, area, design innovations)


Challenges and Trends

  • Radio Integration:

  • Performance and cost trade off for SoC vs SiP solution

  • Signal isolation - challenge to technologists, designers, and EDA tool providers

  • CAD solution for Integrated Radio SiP design (chip, passive, MEMS, package, tool compatibility, model accuracies)

  • Device Technology:

  • Optimizing analog/RF CMOS devices with scaled technologies. Fundamental changes in CMOS device structure device may lead to the need of separate process/chip to support conventional precision analog/RF devices

  • Cost and performance tradeoff of integrating passive devices

  • Predictability of battery technology (end-of-life) and its impact on PA roadmap

  • Compound semiconductor substrate quality, reliability, thermal management

  • Design:

  • Design approach for wider range of supply voltages

  • Digitizing analog functions, Software Define Radio (SDR)



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