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2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal Technologies for Wireless Communications Working Group Herbert S. Bennett Semiconductor Electronics Division, NIST Gaithersburg, MD On Behalf of the RF and AMS ITWG Members 18 July 2007.

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2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal

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2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal

Technologies for Wireless Communications

Working Group

Herbert S. Bennett

Semiconductor Electronics Division, NIST

Gaithersburg, MD

On Behalf of the RF and AMS ITWG Members

18 July 2007

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Outline

  • Scope, Methodology, and Mrganization

  • Technical Requirements

  • More-than-Moore (Embedded Passives & RFMEMS)

  • Challenges and Trends

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Wireless ITWG Scope

  • Use wireless ICs as technology driver

  • Roadmap technical requirements, challenges and potential solutions for RF and AMS IC technologies in wireless applications such as cellular phones, WLAN, WPAN, automotive radar, phased array systems and other emerging standards

  • Address intersection of silicon with III-V compound semiconductors

  • 2007 Roadmap added MtM focus

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Wireless ITWG Methodology

Communication System

- Protocols/Standards

- Frequencies 0.8 – 100GHz

- Architecture

Circuit Figures-of-Merit

- Dynamic Range, Bandwidth

- Gain, Noise Figure, Linearity

- Phase Noise

- Output Power, Gain, PAE

- Power Consumption- Thermal Management

  • Device Figures-of-Merit

  • Mismatch, Gain

  • - fT & fMAX

  • - NFmin & 1/f noise

  • - Breakdown

  • - Quality factor, linearity

  • - Power density, PAE

  • - COST

Wireless Roadmap

Material systems : Si, SiGe, GaAS, InP, GaN

Device structures : MOSFET, LDMOS, HBT, MESFET, PHEMT, MHEMT, passives,

And More than Moore - Embedded passives and RFMEMs

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

GaN - HEMT

InP – HBT, HEMT, GaAs – MHEMT

GaAs - HBT, PHEMT

SiGe – HBT, BiCMOS

Si – RF CMOS

SiC - MESFET

Roadmap mm-Wave Tables

Si-LDMOS

0.8 GHz

2 GHz

5 GHz

10 GHz

28 GHz

77 GHz

94 GHz

GSM

CDMA ISM

PDC

GPS

SAT

Radio

DCS

PCS

DECT

CDMA

WLAN

802.11b/g

HomeRF

Bluetooth

SAT

TV

WLAN

802.11a

SAT TV

WLAN

Hyperlink UWB

LMDS

WLAN

AUTO

RADAR

All Weather

Landing; Imaging

Wireless Communication

Application Spectrum

Applications drive Noise Figure, Power, Power Added Efficiency, Linearity and Cost

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007 Wireless ITWG Organization

Pascal Ancey ST Micro

Joost. Van BeekNXP

Herbert BennettNIST

Pascal ChevalierST Micro

Julio CostaRFMD

Stefaan DecoutereIMEC

Erwin HijzenNXP

Digh HisamotoHitachi

Dave HowardJazz

W. Margaret HuangFreescale

Anthony ImmorlicaBAE Systems

Andre JansmanNXP

Snezana JeneiInfineon

Jay JohnFreescale

Alvin JosephIBM

Takahiro KameiOki

Dawn WangIBM

David ChowHRL

Bobby BrarTSC

Tom KaziorRaytheon

Yukihiro KiyotaSony

Sebastian LiauITRI

Ginkou MaITRI

Mel MillerFreescale

Jan-Erik MuellerInfineon

Hansu OhSamsung

Jack PekarikIBM

Marco RacanelliJazz

Bernard SautreuilST Micro

Sam ShichijoTI

Albert WangIIT

Chuck WeitzelFreescale

Geoffrey YeapQualcomm

Peter ZampardiSkyworks

Bin ZhaoFreescale

Herbert ZirathChalmers U

2007 New members

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007 Organization

Chair:Margaret Huang, Freescale36 Members /last year 27

Co-chairs:Jan-Erik Mueller, Infineon 20 US, 10 Europe, 6 AP

Bin Zhao, Freescale

Editor:Herbert Bennett, NIST

  • Subgroup CMOSJack Pekarik, IBM

  • Subgroup BipolarMarco Racanelli, Jazz

  • Subgroup PassivesSam Shichijo, TI

  • Subgroup PAPeter Zampardi, Skyworks

    Chuck Weitzel, Freescale

  • Subgroup mm-WaveTony Immorlica, BAE Systems

  • Subgroup MEMSDave Howard, Jazz

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • CMOS

    • Performance Analog CMOS

      • Continue linkage to Low Standby Power (LSTP) CMOS roadmap with 1 year lag (Supply Voltage, Tox, Gate length )

      • RF & AMS parameters including: Ft/Fmax. Noise Fig, Gm/Gds, 1/f noise and Vt matching

    • Precision Analog CMOS

      • Thick gate oxide CMOS

      • No update for 2007

    • New 2007, CMOS requirements for mm-Wave

      • Link to High Performance CMOS roadmap with 2 year lag

      • Added RF parameters: Ft/Fmax. Noise Fig @ 24GHz & 60GHz

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • Bipolar

    • 3 Separate Bipolar devices:

      • High Voltage – “typical” low-cost bipolar device

      • High Speed – mm-Wave applications

      • PA – power amplifier applications

    • Focus on high speed and PA bipolar as drivers

    • 2007 reduce high speed device Ft scaling (delay 300 GHz by 1 yr and 500 GHz by 5 yrs). Adjust Fmax, JC and BVCEO scaling accordingly.

    • Revised PA NPN parameters, aligned to PA battery voltage

    • Noise Figure @ 60 GHz

  • On-Chip Passives

    • 3 applications: Analog, RF and Power Amplifier

    • Devices include: Capacitors, Resistors, Inductors, Varactors

    • 2007 add MOM RF capacitor

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

2007 Wireless Requirement Tables

  • Power Amplifier

    • Handset : HBT & FET, III-V and Si

      • 2007 add end-of-life battery voltage, FET/HBT integration for integrated bias circuit design, on-chip switch integration (for stage by-passing).

      • Emerging markets driving PA to a cost/performance driven and a cost only driven applications. Cost-only market driving silicon single chip alternatives.

    • Base Station:Cellular and emerging WiMAX

      • Required relatively high RF power, LDMOS & III-V FET

      • 2007 drop SiC device, displaced by GaN device

  • mm-Wave

    • Dominated by III-V (GaAs PHEMT, InP HEMT, GaAs MHEMT, GaN HEMT, InP HBT ), plus SiGe HBT and RF CMOS (2007)

    • Low noise amplifier and power devices

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

MtM Focus of Wireless

Multi-Standard Applications

  • Address multi-band, multi-mode, portable applications

  • Present device roadmap alone does not enable software defined radio (SDR); needs to:

    • Address digital radio design requirements

    • Address Hybrid approach with wideband amplified and matching, filtering and switching network

      • module assembly and embedded passives requirements (new table)

      • RFMEMS requirements (new table)

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Embeded Passives Table

  • Consider 3 elements on various module substrates such as organic and low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC):

    • Resistor

    • Capacitor

    • Inductor

  • Requirements for example in:

    • Tolerance

    • Temperature linearity

    • Resonance frequency

    • Sheet resistance

    • Breakdown voltage

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

RF MEMS Table

  • Focus on 4 elements:

    • BAW

    • Resonator

    • Switch capacitive contact

    • Switch metal contact

  • Requirements in:

    • Design tool

    • Packaging

    • Performance driver

    • Cost driver

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Wireless Working Group Key Considerations

  • Traditional Roadmap Drivers:

  • Cost (scaling, die size, part count)

  • Power Consumption

  • Chip Functionality

  • Non-traditional Roadmap Drivers:

  • Government regulations determining system spectrum and specifications

  • Standards and protocols drive frequencies, power and performance

  • Color coding “Manufacturing solutions exist” does not imply product volume shipment per ITRS definition

  • RF module form factor (size and height requirements)

  • Cost / Performance Drives Integration:

  • Multi-band Multi-mode system applications (embedded passives, filter, switch integration)

  • Signal isolation and integrity

  • Analog Shrink (power supply, area, design innovations)

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

Challenges and Trends

  • Radio Integration:

  • Performance and cost trade off for SoC vs SiP solution

  • Signal isolation - challenge to technologists, designers, and EDA tool providers

  • CAD solution for Integrated Radio SiP design (chip, passive, MEMS, package, tool compatibility, model accuracies)

  • Device Technology:

  • Optimizing analog/RF CMOS devices with scaled technologies. Fundamental changes in CMOS device structure may lead to the need of separate process/chip to support conventional precision analog/RF devices

  • Cost and performance tradeoff of integrating passive devices

  • Predictability of battery technology (end-of-life) and its impact on PA roadmap

  • Compound semiconductor substrate quality, reliability, thermal management

  • Design:

  • Design approach for wider range of supply voltages

  • Digitizing analog functions, Software Define Radio (SDR)

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


2007 international technology roadmap for semiconductors radio frequency and analog mixed signal

THANK YOU

2007 ITRS DRAFT DO NOT PUBLISH


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