Unit 11
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Unit 11. Imperatives. Another verbal mood in Greek is the Imperative mood. Imperative mood expresses commands. Tense of the imperative mood expresses aspect only , like subjunctives, optatives, and infinitives. The imperative only occurs only in the second and third persons.

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Unit 11

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Unit 11

Unit 11


Imperatives

Imperatives

  • Another verbal mood in Greek is the Imperative mood.

  • Imperative mood expresses commands.

  • Tense of the imperative mood expresses aspect only, like subjunctives, optatives, and infinitives.

  • The imperative only occurs only in the second and third persons.


Present imperative active

Present Imperative - Active

  • -ετω

  • -ετε

  • -οντων

  • βάλλε

  • βαλλέτω

  • βάλλετε

  • βαλλόντων


Present imperative mid passive

Present Imperative – Mid/Passive

  • -ου <-εσο

  • -εσθω

  • -εσθε

  • -εσθων

  • βάλλου

  • βαλλέσθω

  • βάλλεσθε

  • βαλλέσθων


Contract verbs present imperative

Contract Verbs Present Imperative

  • The three types of contract verbs (α, ε, ο) form their imperatives by using the same endings and following the normal rules of contraction.

  • This is true both for the active and middle/passive forms.

  • τιμῶ (τιμάου)

  • τιμώντων (τιμαόντων)

  • τιμάσθων (τιμαέσθων)


1 st aorist imperative active

1st Aorist Imperative - Active

  • -ον

  • -ατω

  • -ατε

  • -αντων

  • γράψον

  • γραψάτω

  • γράψατε

  • γραψάντων


1 st aorist imperative middle

1st Aorist Imperative - Middle

  • -αι

  • -ασθω

  • -ασθε

  • -ασθων

  • γράψαι

  • γραψάσθω

  • γράψασθε

  • γραψάσθων


2 nd aorist imperative active

2nd Aorist Imperative - Active

  • -ετω

  • -ετε

  • -οντων

  • βάλε

  • βαλέτω

  • βάλετε

  • βαλόντων


2 nd aorist imperative middle

2nd Aorist Imperative - Middle

  • -οῦ

  • -εσθω

  • -εσθε

  • -εσθων

  • βαλοῦ

  • βαλέσθω

  • βάλεσθε

  • βαλέσθων


Aorist imperative passive

Aorist Imperative - Passive

  • ητι (ηθι)

  • ητω

  • ητε

  • εντων

  • γράφητι

  • γραφήτω

  • γράφητε

  • γραφέντων


Commnads summary

Commnads Summary

PERSON

  • Subjunctive (Hortatory)

  • Imperative

  • Imperative

  • Many commands in both the hortatory subjunctive and the imperative are preceeded by idiomatic statements like: ἄγε, ἄγετε, φέρε, ἴθι, εἰ δ’ἄγε. All mean “come on”.


Prohibitions summary

Prohibitions Summary

PERSONPROGRESSIVE/REPEATEDSIMPLE

1 μή+ Present Subj.μή +Aor. Subj.

(Hortatory) (Hortatory)

2 μή+ Present Imperativeμή + Aor. Subj.

(Prohibitive)

3 μή+ Present Imperativeμή + Aor. Subj.

(Prohibitive)


Unit 11

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό

  • This word is used in Greek both as an adjective and a pronoun.

  • It functions as an adjective in the attributive position.

  • It functions as a adjective in the predicate position.

  • It is a personal pronoun for the third person when used independently.


Unit 11

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό

αὐτός αὐτήαὐτό

αὐτοῦ αὐτῆςαὐτοῦ

αὐτῷ αὐτῇαὐτῷ

αὐτόν αὐτήναὐτό

αὐτοί αὐταίαὐτά

αὐτῶν αὐτῶναὐτῶν

αὐτοῖς αὐταῖςαὐτοῖς

αὐτούς αὐτάςαὐτά


Attributive

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Attributive

  • In the attributive position, it functions as an adjective.

  • The English translation will be “the same”.

  • ὁ αὐτὸς ποιητής

  • the same poet

  • τὸ αὐτὸ πρᾶγμα

  • the same thing/issue/event/problem


Intensive

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Intensive

  • In the predicate position, it functions as an intensive adjective.

  • The English translation will be “-self” or “personally”.

  • It may modify an unexpressed subject of a verb.


Intensive1

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Intensive

  • ὁ ποιητήςαὐτὸς

  • the poet himself/personally

  • τὸ πρᾶγμα αὐτὸ

  • the thing/issue/event/problem itself


Pronoun

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Pronoun

  • When it does not modify another word it is serving as the third person pronoun.

  • In classical Attic, it will not appear in the nominative in this use.

  • him, her, it, his, hers, its, etc.

  • αὐτοῖς αἶγας ἐθύσαμεν

  • We sacrificed goats to them.


Temporal clauses

Temporal Clauses

  • Temporal clauses are dependent clauses which express a relationship in time between the action within the clause and the action of the main sentence.

  • As usual, the action of a main clause can be past, present, or future.

  • The action of a dependent clause will then be prior, simultaneous, or subsequent.


Temporal clauses1

Temporal Clauses

  • Like conditional statements, temporal clauses are the dependentprotasis, and the main clause is the independentapodosis.

  • Temporal clause = protasis

  • Main clause = apodosis


Temporal clauses2

Temporal Clauses

  • Past Definite (past tense indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπεί, ἐπειδή + past tense indicative

    • Simultaneous: ὅτε + aorist or imperfect ind.

  • Present General (present indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπειδάν +aorist subj.

    • Simultaneous: ὅταν + present or aorist subj.


Temporal clauses3

Temporal Clauses

  • Past General (imperfect indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπεί, ἐπειδή + aorist optative

    • Simultaneous: ὅτε + present or aorist optative

  • Future More Vivid (future indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπειδάν +aorist subj.

    • Simultaneous: ὅταν + present or aorist subj.


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