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Unit 11. Descriptive Prefixes, Asepsis, and Pharmacology. Prefixes. Placed in front of words Purpose: Change meaning or make term clear descriptor Often creates adjectival form. Descriptive Prefixes. Descriptive Prefixes. Prefix: homo-. homo- = same Examples:

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Unit 11

Unit 11

Descriptive Prefixes, Asepsis, and Pharmacology


Prefixes
Prefixes

  • Placed in front of words

  • Purpose:

    • Change meaning or make term clear descriptor

  • Often creates adjectival form




Prefix homo
Prefix: homo-

  • homo- = same

  • Examples:

    • homo/gen/eous = pertaining to same throughout

    • homo/later/al = pertaining to same side

    • homo/gland/ular = pertaining to same gland


Prefix homo1
Prefix: homo-

  • Examples:

    • homo/genized milk = same amount of cream throughout

    • homo/therm/al = having same body temperature all the time

    • homo/sex/ual = being attracted to same sex


Prefix heter o
Prefix: heter/o-

  • heter/o- = different

  • Examples:

    • hetero/gen/eous = pertaining to different throughout

    • hetero/gen/esis = reproduction in which successive generations are different

    • heter/opsia = different vision in each eye

    • heter/o/sexual = being attracted to opposite sex





Prefixes sym and syn
Prefixes: sym- and syn-

  • sym- and syn- = different forms of same prefix meaning together or joined

  • Use sym- when followed by sounds of b, m, f, ph, or p

  • Use syn- when followed by any other letters


Prefix sym
Prefix: sym-

  • Examples:

    • sym/metry = sameness of parts on each side of dividing line

      • Balanced proportions

    • sym/pathy = suffering

      • Medical term

    • sym/path/oma = tumor of sympathetic nerve

    • sym/path/ectomy = excision of sympathetic nerve



Prefix sym1
Prefix: sym-

  • Examples:

    • sym/physis = growing together of parts

    • sym/blepharon = eyelids grown together

    • sym/podia = lower extremities grown together


Prefix syn
Prefix: syn-

  • Examples:

    • syn/dactylism = fingers or toes joined together

    • syn/ergetic = pertaining to agents that act together and produce result greater than sum of individual efforts

    • syn/arthrosis = immoveable joint

    • syn/drome = group of symptoms that occur together


Prefixes super and supra
Prefixes: super- and supra-

  • super- and supra- = above, beyond, or excessive

  • super-

    • More in common English terms

      • Used in a few medical terms

  • supra-

    • More common in terms that describe anatomical locations


Prefix super
Prefix: super-

  • Examples:

    • super/ficial = above or on surface

    • super/ciliary = above eyebrow

    • super/infection = infection on top of another infection

    • super/lethal = excessively deadly

    • super/numerary = exceeding required numbers

      • Extra


Prefix supra
Prefix: supra-

  • Above the following anatomical parts:

    • supra/lumb/ar = spine

    • supra/pub/ic = pubis

    • supra/mamm/ary = breasts

    • supra/renal = kidneys

    • supra/inguin/al = groin



Prefix epi
Prefix: epi-

  • epi- = over or upon

  • Examples:

    • epi/gastr/ic = over stomach

    • epi/derm/al = upon skin

      • Outermost layer

    • epi/crani/al = tissue covering cranium

    • epi/stern/al = area above sternum

    • epi/cardi/um = tissues upon heart


Prefix epi1
Prefix: epi-

  • Inflammation over or upon the following anatomical parts:

    • epi/splen/itis = spleen

    • epi/cyst/itis = bladder

    • epi/nephr/itis = kidney


Prefix epi2
Prefix: epi-

  • Examples:

    • epi/nephr/ectomy = excision of tissue upon kidney

    • epi/gastr/o/rrhaphy = suture of region over stomach


Prefix epi3
Prefix: epi-

  • Examples:

    • epi/didymis = small oblong body that rests on testicle

      • Contains convoluted tubules

      • Involved in sperm production and transportation

    • epi/didym/itis = inflammation of epididymis

    • epi/didym/ectomy = excision of epididymis


Dura mater
Dura Mater

  • Outer layer of meninges

    • Membranes that surround brain and spinal cord

  • epi/dur/al = area in layer or space upon dura mater

  • sub/dur/al = pertaining to below dura mater



Prefix extra
Prefix: extra-

  • extra = outside or beyond

  • Example:

    • extra/nuclear = outside nucleus of cell


Prefix extra1
Prefix: extra-

  • Outside or beyond the following anatomical parts:

    • extra/uterine = uterus

    • extra/articular = joint

    • extra/cyst/ic = urinary bladder

    • extra/hepat/ic = liver


Terms with mamm o
Terms with mamm/o

  • mamm/o = combining form for breast

  • Examples:

    • mamm/o/gram = x-ray picture of breast

    • mamm/o/graphy = process of taking x-ray of breast


Terms with mamm o1
Terms with mamm/o

  • Examples:

    • bi/lateralmamm/o/gram = procedure performed on both breasts

      • bi- = two or both

    • mamm/o/tomy = incision into breast tissue

    • mamm/o/plasty = surgical repair of breast

    • supra/mamm/ary = above breast


Prefix sub
Prefix: sub-

  • sub- = under or below

  • Under or below the following anatomical parts:

    • sub/abdominal = abdomen

    • sub/aur/al = ear

    • sub/cutaneous = skin

      • Also known as subcu, subq, or s.c.

    • sub/lingual = tongue


Prefix infra
Prefix: infra-

  • infra- = under or below

  • Many medical terms can be built using either sub- or infra-

  • Examples:

    • infra/stern/al and sub/sternal = below sternum

    • infra/costal and sub/costal = below ribs

    • infra/pubic and sub/pubic = below pubis


Prefix meta
Prefix: meta-

  • meta- = beyond, after, or occurring later in a series

  • Examples:

    • meta/physical = beyond physical or of the spirit

    • meta/carpals = bones of hand beyond carpals

      • Wrist

    • meta/tarsals = bones of foot beyond tarsals

      • Ankle



Prefix meta1
Prefix: meta-

  • Examples:

    • meta/stasis = spread of disease beyond point of origin

      • meta/stases = plural form

    • meta/static tumor = secondary growth from malignant tumor

  • Primary site

    • Site of origin of cancer


Prefix ultra
Prefix: ultra-

  • ultra- = beyond or in excess

  • Examples:

    • ultra/violet (UV) = light waves beyond violet frequency

    • ultra/sonic = sound waves beyond audible frequency

    • ultra/son/o/graphy = process of making image using ultrasound

      • Also known as sonography

      • Used for both diagnostic testing and therapy


Sepsis
Sepsis

  • Poisoned state or infection caused by absorption of pathogenic bacteria into bloodstream

    • a/sepsis = without sepsis

      • Free of infection or infection-causing microorganisms

      • Performing procedures in environment free of pathogens


Sepsis1
Sepsis

  • sept/o and seps/o = combining forms

  • Examples:

    • septic/emia = infection in bloodstream

    • septic/o/py/emia = infection with pus in bloodstream


Prefix anti
Prefix: anti-

  • anti- = against

  • Many drugs categorized by what they work against:

    • anti/pyretic

    • anti/toxin

    • anti/narcotic

    • anti/convulsant

    • anti/depressant


Agents that fight pathogenic organisms
Agents that Fight Pathogenic Organisms

  • Antiseptics

    • Agents that inhibit growth of organism

    • E.g., mercury, iodine, alcohol

  • Antibiotics

    • Prescription drugs that inhibit growth or destroy microorganisms

    • E.g., penicillin, Keflex, erythromycin


Agents that fight pathogenic organisms1
Agents that Fight Pathogenic Organisms

  • Disinfectants

    • Chemical or physical agents that kill microorganisms

    • E.g., bleach

  • Sterilization

    • Process that kills organisms of all sorts

    • E.g., autoclave using pressure and steam, bleach (does not kill spores)


Prefix contra
Prefix: contra-

  • contra- = against

  • Usually used with modern English words

  • Examples:

    • contra/dict = to speak against what someone says

    • contra/ry = pertaining to being against each other

    • contra/cept/ive = against conception

    • contra/later/al = opposite side


Prefix contra1
Prefix: contra-

  • Examples:

    • contra/indicat/ion = against indication

      • Should not be used

      • contra/indicate = verb form

      • contra/indicated = past tense

      • Drugs may be contraindicated under certain conditions

        • E.g., pregnancy





Prefix trans
Prefix: trans-

  • trans- = across or over

  • Examples:

    • trans/position = position across or over

      • Organ placed on other side of body from where normally found

    • cardi/ac trans/position = heart on right side of body

    • gastr/ic trans/position = stomach on right side of body


Prefix trans1
Prefix: trans-

  • Examples:

    • trans/fusion = passing blood from one person to another

    • percutaneous trans/luminal angioplasty = procedure performed across lumen of heart artery

    • trans/urethr/al resection of the prostate (TURP) = insertion of instrument up urethra to remove excess prostate tissue


Catheter
Catheter

  • Flexible tube

  • Catheterization

    • Inserting catheter

  • Uses:

    • Obtain sterile urine sample through urethra

    • Enlarge heart vessels or view inside of vessels

      • Called trans/catheter therapy or angioplasty


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