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Unit 11. Modern Georgia PowerPoint #3. Learning Targets. Explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970. Consequences of the end of the county unit system and reapportionment. Role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state

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Unit 11

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Unit 11

Modern Georgia

PowerPoint #3

Learning Targets

Explain the importance of significant social,

economic, and political developments in Georgia

since 1970.

  • Consequences of the end of the county unit

    system and reapportionment.

  • Role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state

    senator, governor, president, and past president.

  • Impact of the rise of the two-party system

    in Georgia.

  • Effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on Georgia.

  • Importance of new immigrant communities to

    the growth and economy of Georgia.

State Flag



In 1956, Georgia’s leaders adopted a new state flag.

This upset many African Americans because it looked like a Confederate battle flag and they felt that it was a symbol of racism.

Georgia would keep the flag for 45 years.

In 2001, state leaders replaced it.

This upset many white Georgians who felt that it honored the southern past.

The Primary

Primary = a special kind of election. Members of a political party vote to decide who will represent them in the election

For many years, the Democratic Party was the most powerful party in Georgia.

Whoever won the Democratic primary was sure to win the election.

The White Primary

Before 1944, Georgia’s Democratic Party had a white primary.

Only whites could vote.

This kept African Americans from having any say in state politics.

In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court declared white primaries illegal.

  • In the 1960s, two rulings by the federal district court brought dramatic change to Georgia’s political structure.

End of the County Unit System

  • In April 1962, the Georgia federal court ruled that the county unit system (designed to give power to the rural areas of the state even though the urban areas had a greater population) was unconstitutional.

  • Result = the majority of the representatives in the Georgia house came from urban areas.

Leroy Johnson

  • Gave predominantly black population areas equal opportunity to elect legislative representatives.

  • In a 1962 election, Atlanta attorney Leroy Johnson became the first African American state senator in Georgia since Reconstruction.


  • The act of political leaders redrawing the boundaries of a voting district.

  • In 1964, the Supreme Court rules that voting districts had to be equal in population size.

  • The court also said that the districts had to provide fair representation for all citizens.

One-Person, One-Vote

Every citizen’s vote should be equal to every other citizen’s vote no matter where the person lived.

  • The General Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) its Congressional voting districts to ensure that the districts were of equal population sizes.

  • These two decisions did more than just shift political power from rural to urban areas.

  • New laws and new voting

    districts changed the way

    candidates ran for office

    in Georgia.

Jimmy Carter

  • Born in Plains, Georgia on October 1, 1924

  • Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis

  • Served in the Navy for 7 years

  • Took over family warehouse and cotton gin businesses and peanut farm in Plains

  • Georgia Senator

  • Georgia Governor

As Georgia’s Governor

  • Reorganized State’s executive branch

  • Cut the number of government agencies from 300 to 25

  • Unified the courts

  • Changed the selection of judges to a merit process

  • Appointed the first woman as a

    state judge

  • Created the Georgia Heritage Trust (protected

    our state’s natural/cultural resources)

  • Worked to equalize funding for public schools

  • Supported integration

  • Expanded special education, vocational

    education and pre-school education

  • Expanded state mental health services

As U.S. President

  • Established a national energy policy

  • Completed major civil service reforms

  • Expanded the National Park system

  • Deregulated the trucking and airline industries

  • Created the Department of Education


  • Inflation and interest rates high

  • Efforts to reduce them created a short-term recession

Foreign Policy

  • Negotiated the 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Israel and Egypt = the first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab neighboring state.

  • Obtained congressional ratification of the Panama Canal treaties

  • Established full diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China

  • After Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979, withdrew the US from 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow and increased aid to Pakistan.

  • Championed worldwide human rights.

Iranian Hostage

  • In November 1979, militants took control of the U.S. Embassy in Iran and seized 52 Americans and took them captive for 14 months.

  • Iran did not release the hostages until 1981 on Carter’s last day in office.

After Carter’s Presidency

  • Returned to Plains

  • Won Nobel Peace Prize (2002)

  • Remembered most for his efforts to:

    Negotiate Peace

    Defeat Diseases

    Ensure Fair Elections Around

    the World

    Build Affordable Housing

    (Habitat for Humanity)

Rise of the Two-Party System

  • Things started to change during the 1960s when many white Georgians did not like the way the Democratic presidents had supported civil rights laws.

  • In 1962, a Georgia Republican won a seat in Congress.

  • In 1964, a Republican

    running for president won the

    most votes in Georgia during

    a presidential election.

Democrats vs. Republicans

During the 1980s and 1990s, politics in Georgia continued to shift.

While Democrats continued

to be elected to statewide

offices, Republicans tended

to be favored in national


Republicans in Senate

  • In 1980, Mack Mattingly of St. Simons Island was the first Republican elected to the U.S. Senate from Georgia since Reconstruction.

  • In 1992, Republicans won most of Georgia’s congressional elections.

Cynthia McKinney

  • With the exception – Democrat Cynthia McKinney became the first African American woman from Georgia elected to Congress.

Republicans in House

  • In 1994, Republicans gained a majority in the US House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years.

  • Georgia’s Newt Gingrich was elected Speaker of the House

Sonny Perdue

  • In 2002, Republicans ended over 100 years of Democratic rule with the election of Sonny Perdue as Georgia’s Governor.

Democrats Hang On

  • In that same election, the Democratic party maintained control of the General Assembly, but voters chose Republicans for the U.S. Senate seat and the majority of representatives for the U.S. House.

1996 Olympic Games

  • Held in Atlanta

  • 4 Long-Term Benefits to the State:

    1) Millions of dollars were spent to create world-class

    competition facilities (Olympic Stadium, Georgia Horse Park,

    Wolf Creek Shooting Range Complex, Stone Mountain

    Tennis Facility, Lake Lanier Rowing Center,

    GA Tech and GSU Residence Facilities)

    2) International Recognition to Atlanta

    3) Volunteer Programs, Educational and Training

    Programs, and Employment Opportunities

    4) Economic Impact to Georgia’s Economy

Centennial Olympic Park Bombing

  • July 29, 1996

  • Killed Alice Hawthorne of Albany

  • Wounded 117

  • Athletes and Spectators were scared.


  • Dalton = Carpet Mills

  • Gainesville = Poultry Industry

  • South Georgia = Vidalia Onion Industry

  • Immigrant populations impact Georgia’s economy in a large way.

  • Thousands of immigrants live and work all over Georgia and assist in many jobs and businesses.

Hispanic Community

The fastest growing immigrant community in Georgia is the Hispanic Community.

Georgia’s current Hispanic population is roughly four times what it was just 20 years ago.

Schools, businesses, churches, and public agencies now rely more on Spanish as they serve a growing population that does not speak English as a first language.

Illegal Immigration

Today, few political & social issues cause as much controversy as illegal immigration.

In 2006, Georgia’s General Assembly passed the Security & Immigration Compliance Act in an effort to clamp down on illegal immigration in Georgia.

It requires people seeking state benefits to prove that they are a legal resident.

It also requires police to confirm the legal status of anyone they arrest and penalize employers who continue to hire illegal immigrants.

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