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Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior 4th Edition. Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions. JENNIFER GEORGE & GARETH JONES. Chapter Objectives. Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations

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Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions

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Chapter 3 values attitudes moods and emotions l.jpg

Understanding

and

Managing

Organizational

Behavior

4th Edition

Chapter 3:Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions

JENNIFER GEORGE

& GARETH JONES


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Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations

  • Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job

  • Appreciate when and why emotional labor occurs in organizations


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Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the nature, causes, theories, and consequences of job satisfaction

  • Appreciate the distinction between affective commitment and continuance commitment and their implications for understanding organizational behavior


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Opening Case: Richard Branson is Never Bored

  • Is it possible to have fun while performing a very high stakes job?

  • Richard Branson, Founder and CEO of Virgin Group, Ltd.

    • “I don’t think of work as work and play as play. It’s all living…. I’m living and learning every day.”


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The Nature of Values

  • One’s personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behave

    • Work values: employee’s personal convictions about what outcomes one should expect from work and how one should behave at work

    • Ethical values: one’s personal convictions about what is right and wrong


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Outcome Expectations and Work

  • Comfortable existence

  • Family security

  • Sense of accomplishment

  • Self-respect

  • Social recognition

  • Exciting Life


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Table 3.1 A Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Values

Intrinsic Values

  • Interesting work

  • Challenging work

  • Learning new things

  • Making important contributions

  • Responsibility and autonomy

  • Being creative

Extrinsic Values

  • High pay

  • Job security

  • Job benefits

  • Status in wider community

  • Social contacts

  • Time with family

  • Time for hobbies


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Ethical Values

  • One’s personal convictions about what is right and wrong

    • Utilitarian values: decisions should produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people

    • Moral rights values: decisions should protect the fundamental rights ad privileges of those affected

    • Justice values: decisions should allocate benefits and harms among those affected by the decision in a fair and equitable manner.


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Code of Ethics

  • Set of formal rules and standards, based on ethical values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, that employees can use to make appropriate decisions when the interests of other individuals or groups are at stake

    • Whistleblowers inform people in positions of authority of instances of wrongdoing, illegal behavior, or unethical behavior in an organization


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Work Attitudes

  • Collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations.

  • Specific work attitudes:

    • Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their current jobs.

    • Organizational commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their organizations as a whole.


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6

Work Moods

  • How people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs.

  • More transitory than values and attitudes.

  • Determining factors:

    • Personality

    • Work situation

    • Circumstances outside of work


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Positive

Excited

Enthusiastic

Active

Strong

Peppy

Elated

Negative

Distressed

Fearful

Scornful

Hostile

Jittery

Nervous

Work Moods


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Emotions

  • Intense, short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedent

  • Emotions can feed into moods

  • Emotional labor: the work employees perform to control their experience and expression of moods and emotions on the job


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Determinants of Job Satisfaction_1

  • Personality: the enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behaving

    • Extroverts tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than introverts

  • Values: reflect employees’ convictions about the outcomes that work should lead to and how one should behave at work

    • Those with strong intrinsic work values is more likely than one with weak intrinsic work values to be satisfied with a job that is meaningful but requires long hours and offer poor pay


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Determinants of Job Satisfaction_2

  • Work Situation

    • tasks a person performs

    • people a jobholder interacts with

    • surroundings in which a person works

    • the way the organization treats the jobholder


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Determinants of Job Satisfaction_3

  • Social Influence: influence that individuals or groups have on a person’s attitudes and behavior

    • Coworkers

    • Family

    • Other reference groups (unions, religious groups, friends)

    • Culture


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Theories of Job Satisfaction

  • The Facet Model

  • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • The Discrepancy Model

  • The Steady-State Theory


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The Facet Model

  • Focuses primarily on work situation factors by breaking a job into its component elements, or job facets, and looking at how satisfied workers are with each.

  • A worker’s overall job satisfaction is determined by summing his or her satisfaction with each facet of the job.


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Ability utilization

Achievement

Activity

Advancement

Authority

Company policies and practices

Compensation

Co-workers

Creativity

Independence

Moral values

Recognition

Responsibility

Security

Social service

Social status

Human relations supervision

Technical supervision

Variety

Working conditions

Table 3.2 Job Facets


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Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Job Satisfaction

  • Focuses on the effects of certain types of job facets

  • Everyone has two sets of needs or requirements

    • Motivator needs are associated with the actual work itself and how challenging it is

      • Facets: interesting work, autonomy, responsibility

    • Hygiene needs are associated with the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed

      • Facets: physical working conditions, pay, security


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Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • Hypothesized relationships between motivator needs, hygiene needs, and job satisfaction:

    • When motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will not be satisfied.

    • When hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will be dissatisfied.


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The Discrepancy Model of Job Satisfaction

  • To determine how satisfied they are with their jobs, workers compare their job to some “ideal job.” This “ideal job” could be

    • What one thinks the job should be like

    • What one expected the job to be like

    • What one wants from a job

    • What one’s former job was like

  • Can be used in combination with the Facet Model.


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Determining Satisfaction with the Discrepancy and Facet Models

  • A) How much (enter job facet) do you currently have at your job?

  • B) How much (enter job facet) do you think your job should have?

  • The difference between A and B indicates the level of satisfaction with that facet

  • The differences are summed for an overall satisfaction score


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The Steady-State Theory of Job Satisfaction

  • Each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction, called the steady state or equilibrium level.

  • Different situational factors or events at work may move a worker temporarily from this steady state, but the worker will eventually return to his or her equilibrium level.


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Consequences of Job (Dis)Satisfaction

  • Performance: Satisfied workers are slightly more likely to perform at a higher level than dissatisfied workers

  • Absenteeism: Satisfied workers are only slightly less likely to be absent than dissatisfied workers

  • Turnover: Satisfied workers are less likely to leave the organization than dissatisfied workers


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Motivation to attend work is affected by

Job satisfaction

Organization’s absence policy

Other factors

Ability to attend work is affected by

Illness and accidents

Transportation problems

Family responsibilities

Table 3.3 Determinants of Absence from Work


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Consequences of Job Satisfaction

  • Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Satisfied workers are more likely to engage in this behavior than dissatisfied workers.

    • Helping coworkers, spreading goodwill

  • Employee well-being: Satisfied workers are more likely to have strong well-being than dissatisfied workers.

    • How happy, healthy, and prosperous workers are


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Organizational Commitment

  • Feelings and beliefs about the employing organization as a whole

    • Affective commitment

    • Continuance commitment

  • Affective commitment is more positive for organizations than continuance commitment


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