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3 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions






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3 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions. Learning Objectives. Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job
3 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions

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Slide 1

3 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions

Slide 2

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations

  • Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job

  • Appreciate when and why emotional labor occurs in organizations

Slide 3

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the nature, causes, theories, and consequences of job satisfaction

  • Appreciate the distinction between affective commitment and continuance commitment and their implications for understanding organizational behavior

Slide 4

Opening Case: Richard Branson Is Never Bored

  • How can an old-economy company transform itself, prosper, and be good to its employees?

  • Bill Greehy, CEO of Valero Energy.

    • “..the more you do for your employees, the more they do for shareholders and the more they do for the community.”

Slide 5

The Nature of Values

Values are one’s personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behave

Work

Values

Ethical

Values

Slide 6

Values

Work Values

Ethical Values

Intrinsic

Work

Values

Extrinsic

Work

Values

Justice

Values

Utilitarian

Values

Moral

Rights

Values

Exhibit 3.1 Values in the Workplace

Slide 7

Intrinsic Values

Interesting work

Challenging work

Learning new things

Making important contributions

Responsibility and autonomy

Being creative

Extrinsic Values

High pay

Job security

Job benefits

Status in wider community

Social contacts

Time with family

Time for hobbies

A Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Values

Slide 8

Code of Ethics

A code of ethics is a set of formal rules and standards, based on ethical values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, that employees can use to make appropriate decisions when the interests of other individuals or groups are at stake

  • Whistleblowers

Slide 9

Work Attitudes

Work attitudes are collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations

Job

Satisfaction

Organizational

Commitment

Slide 10

Exhibit 3.3 Components of Work Attitudes

Affective Component

Cognitive Component

Work Attitudes

Behavioral Component

Slide 11

Work Moods

  • How people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs

  • More transitory than values and attitudes

  • Determining factors:

    • Personality

    • Work situation

    • Circumstances outside of work

Slide 12

Positive

Excited

Enthusiastic

Active

Strong

Peppy

Elated

Negative

Distressed

Fearful

Scornful

Hostile

Jittery

Nervous

Work Moods

Slide 13

Emotions

  • Intense, short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedent

  • Emotions can feed into moods

  • Emotional labor

Slide 14

Emotional Labor

Display Rules

Feeling Rules

Expression Rules

Slide 15

Exhibit 3.4 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions

Values

(most stable)

Attitudes

(moderately stable)

Moods

and Emotions

(most changing)

Slide 16

Personality

Work

Situation

Job

Satisfaction

Values

Social

Influence

Exhibit 3.5 Determinants of Job Satisfaction

Slide 17

Determinants of Job Satisfaction_1

  • Personality

    • Extraverts tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than introverts

  • Values

    • A person with strong intrinsic work values is more likely than one with weak intrinsic work values to be satisfied with a job that is meaningful but requires long hours and offers poor pay

Slide 18

Determinants of Job Satisfaction_2

  • Work Situation

    • tasks a person performs

    • people a jobholder interacts with

    • surroundings in which a person works

    • the way the organization treats the jobholder

Slide 19

Determinants of Job Satisfaction_3

  • Social influence is the influence that individuals or groups have on a person’s attitudes and behavior

    • Coworkers

    • Family

    • Other reference groups (unions, religious groups, friends)

    • Culture

Slide 20

Theories of Job Satisfaction

  • The Facet Model

  • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • The Discrepancy Model

  • The Steady-State Theory

Slide 21

Ability utilization

Achievement

Activity

Advancement

Authority

Company policies

Compensation

Coworkers

Creativity

Independence

Moral values

Recognition

Responsibility

Security

Social service

Social status

Variety

Working conditions

The Facet Model

Slide 22

Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Job Satisfaction

  • Focuses on the effects of certain types of job facets

  • Everyone has two sets of needs or requirements

Motivator Needs

Hygiene Needs

Slide 23

Motivator and Hygiene Needs

  • When motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will not be satisfied.

  • When hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will be dissatisfied.

Slide 24

Exhibit 3.7 Two Views of Job Satisfaction

Slide 25

The Discrepancy Model of Job Satisfaction

  • To determine how satisfied they are with their jobs, workers compare their job to some “ideal job.” This “ideal job” could be

    • What one thinks the job should be like

    • What one expected the job to be like

    • What one wants from a job

    • What one’s former job was like

  • Can be used in combination with the Facet Model.

Slide 26

Determining Satisfaction with the Discrepancy and Facet Models

  • A) How much (enter job facet) do you currently have at your job?

  • B) How much (enter job facet) do you think your job should have?

  • The difference between A and B indicates the level of satisfaction with that facet

  • The differences are summed for an overall satisfaction score

Slide 27

The Steady-State Theory of Job Satisfaction

  • Each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction, called the steady state or equilibrium level.

  • Different situational factors or events at work may move a worker temporarily from this steady state, but the worker will eventually return to his or her equilibrium level.

Slide 28

Exhibit 3.8 Job Satisfaction as a Steady State

Slide 29

Exhibit 3.9 Sample Measures of Job Satisfaction

Slide 30

Consequences of Job (Dis)Satisfaction

Performance

Absenteeism

Turnover

Slide 31

Motivation to attend work is affected by

Job satisfaction

Organization’s absence policy

Other factors

Ability to attend work is affected by

Illness and accidents

Transportation problems

Family responsibilities

Exhibit 3.10 Determinants of Absence from Work

Slide 32

Exhibit 3.11 Mobley’s Model of the Turnover Process

Slide 33

Consequences of Job Satisfaction

Organizational

Citizenship

Behavior (OCB)

Employee

Well-Being

Slide 34

Organizational Commitment

  • Feelings and beliefs about the employing organization as a whole

    • Affective commitment

    • Continuance commitment

  • Affective commitment is more positive for organizations than continuance commitment


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