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Chapter 4 Attitudes, Values, and Ethics. Learning Outcomes. a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. Attitude – a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.

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chapter 4 attitudes values and ethics

Chapter 4 Attitudes, Values, and Ethics

Learning Outcomes

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide2
a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor

Attitude –

a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor

Should poor performance be

blamed on “bad attitude”?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

model of an attitude

A

C

B

Model of an Attitude

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

cognitive dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance

a state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

two influences on attitude formation
Two Influences on Attitude Formation

Social Learning

Direct Experience

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction
  • A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.
  • What are the facets of job satisfaction?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide7

Consequences of Job Satisfaction

  • Employee Withdrawal: Actions such as chronic absenteeism and voluntary turnover (i.e., quitting one’s job) that enable employees to escape from adverse organization situations.
    • Absenteeism
    • Turnover
  • Individual Task Performance
  • Organizational Performance

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide8

Task Performance

  • The relationship between satisfaction and task performance is positive, but it is not very strong.
  • Explanations:
    • In many work settings, there is little room for large changes in performance.
    • Job satisfaction and performance may not be directly linked. Any direct relationship between them may stem from the fact that both are related to other factors – receipt of various rewards and organizational commitment.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

ocb and wdb
OCB and WDB
  • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
    • Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty. Things that affect OCB may be:
      • Job Satisfaction
      • Procedural justice
    • Helps explain why individual level job satisfaction is related to organizational performance.
  • Workplace Deviance Behavior (WDB)
    • Any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to organizational functioning.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

organizational commitment
Organizational Commitment
  • The strength of an individual’s identification with an organization.
  • Three kinds of organizational commitment:
    • Affective
    • Continuance
    • Normative
kinds of organizational commitment
Kinds of Organizational Commitment

Affective Commitment: The type of organizational commitment that is based on an individual’s desire to remain in an organization.

Continuance Commitment:The type of organizational commitment that is based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.

Normative Commitment: The type of commitment that is based on an individual’s perceived obligation to remain within an organization.

affective commitment
Affective Commitment

A belief in the goals and values of the organization.

A willingness to put forth effort on behalf of the organization.

A desire to remain a member of the organization.

slide13

Affective Commitment

  • Conditions that enhance:
    • Job satisfaction (strong, positive relationship)
    • Participation
    • Job security
    • Job characteristics (autonomy, responsibility, interesting work)
  • Advantages:
    • Lower absenteeism, lower turnover, higher quality, higher productivity, higher performance

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide14

Individual Effectiveness

  • (engagement)
  • Task performance
  • Extra-role performance (OCB)
  • Lateness
  • Absenteeism
  • Turnover
  • Overall Job Attitude
  • Satisfaction
  • Commitment

Conclusion: A sound measurement of overall job attitude is one of the

most useful pieces of information an organization can have about

its employees

Harrison, D.A., Newman, D.A., Roth, P.L. 2006. How important are job attitudes?

SHOW STUDY

slide15

Interpersonal Trust

  • A willingness to be vulnerable to the actions of another in situations involving a degree of risk
    • I am comfortable discussing with my supervisor concerns I have about our working relationship.
    • I am comfortable discussing with my supervisor concerns I have about my ability to do my job

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide16

Hope

Trust

Burnout

0.64

0.21

0.39

Interdependence

Performance

-0.64

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide17

Engagement

  • Engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Rather than a momentary and specific state, engagement refers to a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior. Vigoris characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence even in the face of difficulties. Dedicationrefers to being strongly involved in one\'s work and experiencing a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide18

VIGOR

When I am working, I feel mentally strong

I can continue for a very long time when I am working

When I work at my current job, I feel like I am bursting with energy

At my job, I feel strong and vigorous

When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work

DEDICATON

I find my work to be full of meaning and purpose

My work inspires me

I am enthusiastic about my job

I am proud of the work that I do

I find my work challenging

ABSORBTION

Time flies when I am working

When I am working, I forget everything else around me

I feel very happy when I am working intensively

I can get carried away when I am working

I am immersed in my work

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

engagement
Engagement
  • Simultaneous investment of an individual’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energy in active, full work performance
  • Investing the head, hands and heart in full work performance

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide20

Core

Self-Evaluation

Value Congruence

Organizational

Support

Task

Performance

Citizenship

Behavior

Engagement

Rich, et al. 2010, AMJ

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide21

Gallup Q-12 Engagement – cause or effect?

  • I know what is expected of me at work.
  • I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right.
  • At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best everyday.
  • In the last seven days, I have received recognition or praise for doing good work.
  • My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person.
  • There is someone at work who encourages my development.
  • At work, my opinions seem to count.
  • The mission or purpose of my company makes me feel my job is important
  • My associates or fellow employees are committed to doing quality work.
  • I have a best friend at work.
  • In the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progress.
  • This last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow.

#13: How satisfied are you with ________ as a place to work?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide22

Engagement

  • Cause (examples: Q12)
    • I have a best friend at work
    • I know what is expected of me at work
    • My opinions seem to count
    • My supervisor seems to care about me
  • Effect (examples)
    • My work inspires me
    • I am immersed in my work
    • When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work
    • I feel very happy when I am working intensively

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide23

What is the one thing that should probably be the top priority of most businesses? Put another way, what matters the most to a business?

  • How do you get or accomplish what matters most? Put another way, if you are the owner or manager of a business, what is the most important thing you should be doing on a daily basis to accomplish your top priority?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide24

Service-Profit Chain

Operating Strategy and Service Delivery System

Revenue

Growth

(effectiveness)

Profitability

(efficiency)

Employee

Retention

Employee

Productivity

External

Service

Value

Internal

Service

Quality

Employee

Satisfaction

And Commitment

Customer

Satisfaction

Customer

Loyalty

Results

for customers

Retention

Repeat business

Referral

Workplace design

Job design

Employee selection

and development

Rewards and recognition

Enablement: Tools for serving customers

Service designed and delivered

to meet targeted customers’ needs

Source: James L. Heskett et al. “Putting the Service Profit Chain to Work”, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1994, p. 166

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

emotions
Emotions

Mental states that typically include feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act.

Short-lived, intense reactions to an event that can affect behavior

Positive (e.g. joy and pride) and negative (e.g. fear and hostility)

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

job dis satisfaction
JOB (DIS)SATISFACTION

[Positive Emotions]

[Negative Emotions]

  • Improve cognitive functioning
  • Improve health and coping mechanisms
  • Enhance creativity
  • Lead to workplace deviance.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide27
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

emotional contagion
EMOTIONAL CONTAGION

Emotional contagion is the dynamic process through which emotions are transferred

from one person to another. It occursprimarily through nonverbal cues and

tendency for mimicry.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide29

Positive Service

Climate

Supervisor

Emotional

Exhaustion

Employee

Emotional

Exhaustion

Employee

Positive

Emotions

Link to post on the study

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

ethical behavior
Ethical Behavior

acting in ways consistent with one’s personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide31

Individual/Organizational Model of Ethical Behavior

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide32

Locus of Control -personality variable that affects individual behavior

Internal -belief in personal control and personal responsibility

External -belief in control by outside forces (fate, chance, other people)

  • Internals:
  • Take responsibility for consequences
  • Make more ethical decisions
  • Resist social pressure
  • Less willing to hurt another, even if ordered to do so by an authority figure

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide33

Machiavellianism

a personality characteristic indicating one’s willingness to do whatever it takes to get one’s own way

  • High Machs:
    • Better to be feared than loved
    • Use deceit in relationships
    • Justify manipulative behavior as ethical
  • Low Machs:
    • Value loyalty and relationships
    • Concerned with others’ opinions

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide34

Lynndie England and Charles Graner in

Abu Ghraib prison, Iraq

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide35

Ethics and the Individual

Ethical decision making requires three qualities of individuals

Competence to identify ethical issues and

evaluate the consequences of alternate actions.

Self-confidence to seek out different

opinions and decide what is right.

Willingness to make decisions when there

is no unambiguous solution.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

cognitive moral development
Cognitive Moral Development

The process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions

Level I – Premoral Level

Stage 1 – avoid punishment

Stage 2 – serve immediate interest

Level Il – Conventional Level

Stage 3 – live up to

friends’ expectations

Stage 4 – observe

societal laws

Level llI – Principled Level

Stage 5 – principles of

justice/right

Stage 6 – self-selected

ethical principles

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

wsj article ua pilot
WSJ Article UA Pilot
  • How do you explain Capt. Denny Flanagan’s behavior – why does he strive to provide an exceptional customer experience? What are the results?
  • What do you think of the United executive’s “hopes” that more pilots and airport workers will adopt some of Flanagan’s techniques?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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