Chapter 4:  Classical Conditioning:  Basic Phenomenon  Various Complexities

Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomenon Various Complexities PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Acquisition. Is the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of CS with USIt proceeds rapidly during early conditioning trials, then gradually levels offThe asymptote is the maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situati

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Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomenon Various Complexities

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1. Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomenon & Various Complexities

2. Acquisition Is the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of CS with US It proceeds rapidly during early conditioning trials, then gradually levels off The asymptote is the maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situation

3. Typical Acquisition Curve

4. What influences the speed and asymptote of acquisition? Intensity of the US Example: when the US consists of a large amount of food or a highly preferred food, conditioning is stronger Intensity of the neutral stimulus NS or CS Example: when the CS consists of a louder metronome, conditioning is stronger

5. Extinction The Process a conditioned response is weakened or eliminated when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US The Procedure the repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US Example: Procedure - present the metronome by itself Process - salivation will eventually die out

6. Notation for Extinction Metronome: Food ? Salivation NS US UR Metronome ? Salivation CS CR Metronome ? No salivation “NS” —

7. What happens to the CR? It has decreased in strength It has not been completely eliminated It can be reacquired quite rapidly when the CS (or NS) is again paired with the US Example: pair the metronome with food following an extinction procedure

8. Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a CS following a rest period after extinction An extinguished response can reappear even in the absence of further pairings between the CS and US Each time the response recovers it is somewhat weaker and is extinguished more quickly than before Example: after several extinction sessions, the metronome will elicit little or no salivation

9. Spontaneous Recovery Graph

10. Learning Something New Extinction is not simply a process of unlearning the conditioning. Extinction involves learning something new. New conditioning inhibits the occurrence of the CR in the presence of the CS. Example: The dog learns to inhibit the response of salivation to the metronome.

11. Disinhibition The sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced Example: If after extinction we present a novel humming noise, the metronome may again elicit salivation If your anxiety while giving a speech gradually fades, it may suddenly recover when a noisy fan starts

12. Stimulus Generalization The tendency for a CR to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the CS. The more similar the stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger the response. It is an important evolutionary adaptation. Example: If we learn to fear a poisonous spider, it is far more adaptive to learn to fear other spiders as well, particularly those spiders that look similar to the one that bit us.

13. Semantic Generalization The generalization of a CS to verbal stimuli that are similar in meaning to the CS The meaning of the word is critical Example: Car and automotive, vehicle, etc. elicit a similar response, while tar and bar do not

14. Stimulus Discrimination The tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another Example: The dog salivates in the presence of the 2,000-Hz tone but not in the presence of a 1,900-Hz tone This can be deliberately trained through discrimination training

15. Discrimination Training Conditioning Phase 2,000-Hz tone: Food ? Salivation NS US UR 1,900-Hz tone: No food ? No Salivation NS — Test Phase 2,000-Hz tone ?Salivation CS+ CR 1,900-Hz tone ? No salivation CS- —

16. Discrimination The 2,000-Hz tone has become an excitatory CS (or CS+). It predicts the presentation of food. The 1,900-Hz tone has become an inhibitory CS (or CS–). It predicts the absence of food.

17. Development of Disorders Phobias - overgeneralization of a fear response Example: A woman who overgeneralizes her fear of an abusive relationship may develop a fear of all relationships Experimental Neurosis - neurotic-like symptoms which develop when exposed to extreme uncertainty Example: Jana’s boyfriends display neuroticism after her erratic behavior

18. Extroversion - Introversion Introverts are highly reactive to external stimulation condition easily develop anxiety-type symptoms in reaction to stress Extroverts less reactive to external stimulation condition less easily develop physical-type symptoms in reaction to stress

19. Higher-Order Conditioning Stimulus that is associated with a CS can also become a CS. Example: Doorbell – happy

20. Customer - Doorbell Example Customer: Purchase $ ? Happy NS1 US UR Customer ? Happy CS1 CR Doorbell: Customer ? Happy NS2 CS1 CR Doorbell ? Happy CS2 CR

21. Third-Order Conditioning Pairing third stimulus with the CS It is difficult to obtain The conditioned response to a third-order conditioned stimulus (the CS3) is likely to be very weak Example: People on street linked to doorbell Higher order conditioning used in advertising (What are the stimuli and responses in this situation? (not really clear in the textbook) Issue of Tiger Woods

22. Homework Higher order conditioning links for advertisements Examples? Cultural bias Tiger Woods/ Kobe Bryant revisited

23. Sensory Preconditioning When one stimulus is conditioned as a CS, another stimulus it was previously associated with can also become a CS Example: The lunch time was previously associated with customer. Lunch time : Customers NS2 NS1 Wasp example from text

24. How does lunch time elicit happiness? Customer: $ ? Happiness NS1 US UR Customer ? Happiness CS1 CR Lunchtime ? Happiness CS2 CR

25. What impacts sensory preconditioning? The response elicited by the time of day (CS2) is generally weaker than the response elicited by the actual customers (CS1) This type of conditioning works best if the stimuli are paired relatively few times – no habituation or latent inhibition allowed – “Thompson pg 145” Sometimes works better if stimuli are presented simultaneously as opposed to sequentially

26. Compound Stimulus Simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli Example: The sound of a metronome is presented at the same time as a light Two Types: Overshadowing Blocking

27. Overshadowing The most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the least salient member Example: assigning an assistant to announce an unpopular decision (therefore: the boss is not as associated with the announcement) a bright light and a faint-sounding metronome

28. Notation for Overshadowing [Bright light + Faint metronome]: Food ?Salivation NS US UR [Bright light + Faint metronome] ? Salivation CS CR Bright light ? Salivation CS CR Faint metronome ? No salivation NS —

29. Rescorla-Wagner Theory Chapter 5 : page 178 Set amount of learning can occur to one US The more salient or earlier CS grabs most of the associative value Tone + Light example

30. Blocking The presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS Consists of a neutral stimulus and a CS rather than two neutral stimuli (overshadowing) that differ in salience Example: When announcing bad news, announce with another manager who is already disliked by the employees.

31. Latent Inhibition An unfamiliar stimulus is more readily conditioned than a familiar stimulus Example: a rabbit in a grassy field is attacked by a coyote the scent of the coyote is a good predictor of a possible attack, not the scent of the grass People with schizophrenia display less latent inhibition than is normal

32. Temporal Conditioning A form of classical conditioning in which the CS is the passage of time Example: anxiety in residents who experience a bombing attack each night at 2:00 a.m. for several nights feeling hungry at noon

33. Occasion Setting A procedure in which a stimulus (i.e., an occasion setter) signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the US with which it is associated The context (location or environment) of the conditioning often comes to serve as an overall predictor of the relationship between two events Example: Drug overdose example (the garage): Will discuss more thoroughly next chapter Alcoholic parent : cues to drunkeness

34. External Inhibition The presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the CS produces a decrease in the strength of the CS Example: present a light at the same time as the metronome the dog has been distracted by the light and therefore reacts less strongly to the metronome

35. US Revaluation Postconditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity, thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS The value or magnitude of the US is changed The intensity of response is dependent on the animal’s most recent experience with the US Example: Giving the dog more food after conditioning it with less Example of inflation and deflation (eg wage cut)

36. Pseudoconditioning An elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather than conditioning Example: pair of the light with the shock, so that dog’s leg flexion is elicited by light Sensitization can result in the response being elicited by other stimuli as well This is a potential problem whenever the US is some type of emotionally arousing stimulus

37. Eye-blink Conditioning Behaviour and Biology

38. Test Review 60-70 MC questions Approx 20 Short answer points (1 to 5 points each) 75% / 25% split in weighting Use only space provided for SA questions MC covers everything somewhat randomly, SA more focused on class discussion

39. Summary Strengthening a conditioned response by pairing a CS (or NS) with a US is known as acquisition. Weakening a conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the CS by itself is known as extinction. Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a previously extinguished response after a rest period. Disinhibition is the sudden recovery of an extinguished response following introduction of a novel stimulus.

40. Summary, continued Stimulus Generalization vs. Stimulus Discrimination Semantic Generalization Higher-order conditioning Sensory preconditioning Temporal conditioning Occasion setting

41. Summary, continued US revaluation Pseudoconditioning Processes that interfere with conditioning: overshadowing blocking latent inhibition external inhibition

42. Next Midterm Test #1

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