Acquisition. Is the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of CS with USIt proceeds rapidly during early conditioning trials, then gradually levels offThe asymptote is the maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situati
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1. Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomenon & Various Complexities
2. Acquisition Is the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of CS with US
It proceeds rapidly during early conditioning trials, then gradually levels off
The asymptote is the maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situation
3. Typical Acquisition Curve
4. What influences the speed and asymptote of acquisition? Intensity of the US
when the US consists of a large amount of food or a highly preferred food, conditioning is stronger
Intensity of the neutral stimulus NS or CS
when the CS consists of a louder metronome, conditioning is stronger
5. Extinction The Process
a conditioned response is weakened or eliminated when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US
the repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US
Procedure - present the metronome by itself
Process - salivation will eventually die out
6. Notation for Extinction Metronome: Food ? Salivation
NS US UR
Metronome ? Salivation
Metronome ? No salivation
7. What happens to the CR? It has decreased in strength
It has not been completely eliminated
It can be reacquired quite rapidly when the CS (or NS) is again paired with the US
pair the metronome with food following an extinction procedure
8. Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a CS following a rest period after extinction
An extinguished response can reappear even in the absence of further pairings between the CS and US
Each time the response recovers it is somewhat weaker and is extinguished more quickly than before
after several extinction sessions, the metronome will elicit little or no salivation
9. Spontaneous Recovery Graph
10. Learning Something New Extinction is not simply a process of unlearning the conditioning.
Extinction involves learning something new.
New conditioning inhibits the occurrence of the CR in the presence of the CS.
The dog learns to inhibit the response of salivation to the metronome.
11. Disinhibition The sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced
If after extinction we present a novel humming noise, the metronome may again elicit salivation
If your anxiety while giving a speech gradually fades, it may suddenly recover when a noisy fan starts
12. Stimulus Generalization The tendency for a CR to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the CS.
The more similar the stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger the response.
It is an important evolutionary adaptation.
If we learn to fear a poisonous spider, it is far more adaptive to learn to fear other spiders as well, particularly those spiders that look similar to the one that bit us.
13. Semantic Generalization The generalization of a CS to verbal stimuli that are similar in meaning to the CS
The meaning of the word is critical
Car and automotive, vehicle, etc. elicit a similar response, while tar and bar do not
14. Stimulus Discrimination The tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another
The dog salivates in the presence of the 2,000-Hz tone but not in the presence of a 1,900-Hz tone
This can be deliberately trained through discrimination training
15. Discrimination Training Conditioning Phase
2,000-Hz tone: Food ? Salivation
NS US UR
1,900-Hz tone: No food ? No Salivation
2,000-Hz tone ?Salivation
1,900-Hz tone ? No salivation
16. Discrimination The 2,000-Hz tone has become an excitatory CS (or CS+).
It predicts the presentation of food.
The 1,900-Hz tone has become an inhibitory CS (or CS–).
It predicts the absence of food.
17. Development of Disorders Phobias - overgeneralization of a fear response
A woman who overgeneralizes her fear of an abusive relationship may develop a fear of all relationships
Experimental Neurosis - neurotic-like symptoms which develop when exposed to extreme uncertainty
Jana’s boyfriends display neuroticism after her erratic behavior
18. Extroversion - Introversion Introverts
are highly reactive to external stimulation
develop anxiety-type symptoms in reaction to stress
less reactive to external stimulation
condition less easily
develop physical-type symptoms in reaction to stress
19. Higher-Order Conditioning Stimulus that is associated with a CS can also become a CS.
Doorbell – happy
20. Customer - Doorbell Example Customer: Purchase $ ? Happy
NS1 US UR
Customer ? Happy
Doorbell: Customer ? Happy
NS2 CS1 CR
Doorbell ? Happy
21. Third-Order Conditioning Pairing third stimulus with the CS
It is difficult to obtain
The conditioned response to a third-order conditioned stimulus (the CS3) is likely to be very weak
People on street linked to doorbell
Higher order conditioning used in advertising (What are the stimuli and responses in this situation? (not really clear in the textbook)
Issue of Tiger Woods
22. Homework Higher order conditioning links for advertisements
Tiger Woods/ Kobe Bryant revisited
23. Sensory Preconditioning When one stimulus is conditioned as a CS, another stimulus it was previously associated with can also become a CS
The lunch time was previously associated with customer.
Lunch time : Customers
Wasp example from text
24. How does lunch time elicit happiness? Customer: $ ? Happiness
NS1 US UR
Customer ? Happiness
Lunchtime ? Happiness
25. What impacts sensory preconditioning? The response elicited by the time of day (CS2) is generally weaker than the response elicited by the actual customers (CS1)
This type of conditioning works best if the stimuli are paired relatively few times – no habituation or latent inhibition allowed – “Thompson pg 145”
Sometimes works better if stimuli are presented simultaneously as opposed to sequentially
26. Compound Stimulus Simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli
The sound of a metronome is presented at the same time as a light
27. Overshadowing The most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the least salient member
assigning an assistant to announce an unpopular decision (therefore: the boss is not as associated with the announcement)
a bright light and a faint-sounding metronome
28. Notation for Overshadowing [Bright light + Faint metronome]: Food ?Salivation
NS US UR
[Bright light + Faint metronome] ? Salivation
Bright light ? Salivation
Faint metronome ? No salivation
29. Rescorla-Wagner Theory Chapter 5 : page 178
Set amount of learning can occur to one US
The more salient or earlier CS grabs most of the associative value
Tone + Light example
30. Blocking The presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS
Consists of a neutral stimulus and a CS rather than two neutral stimuli (overshadowing) that differ in salience
When announcing bad news, announce with another manager who is already disliked by the employees.
31. Latent Inhibition An unfamiliar stimulus is more readily conditioned than a familiar stimulus
a rabbit in a grassy field is attacked by a coyote
the scent of the coyote is a good predictor of a possible attack, not the scent of the grass
People with schizophrenia display less latent inhibition than is normal
32. Temporal Conditioning A form of classical conditioning in which the CS is the passage of time
anxiety in residents who experience a bombing attack each night at 2:00 a.m. for several nights
feeling hungry at noon
33. Occasion Setting A procedure in which a stimulus (i.e., an occasion setter) signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the US with which it is associated
The context (location or environment) of the conditioning often comes to serve as an overall predictor of the relationship between two events
Drug overdose example (the garage): Will discuss more thoroughly next chapter
Alcoholic parent : cues to drunkeness
34. External Inhibition The presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the CS produces a decrease in the strength of the CS
present a light at the same time as the metronome
the dog has been distracted by the light and therefore reacts less strongly to the metronome
35. US Revaluation Postconditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity, thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS
The value or magnitude of the US is changed
The intensity of response is dependent on the animal’s most recent experience with the US
Giving the dog more food after conditioning it with less
Example of inflation and deflation (eg wage cut)
36. Pseudoconditioning An elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather than conditioning
pair of the light with the shock, so that dog’s leg flexion is elicited by light
Sensitization can result in the response being elicited by other stimuli as well
This is a potential problem whenever the US is some type of emotionally arousing stimulus
37. Eye-blink Conditioning Behaviour and Biology
38. Test Review 60-70 MC questions
Approx 20 Short answer points (1 to 5 points each)
75% / 25% split in weighting
Use only space provided for SA questions
MC covers everything somewhat randomly, SA more focused on class discussion
39. Summary Strengthening a conditioned response by pairing a CS (or NS) with a US is known as acquisition.
Weakening a conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the CS by itself is known as extinction.
Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a previously extinguished response after a rest period.
Disinhibition is the sudden recovery of an extinguished response following introduction of a novel stimulus.
40. Summary, continued Stimulus Generalization vs. Stimulus Discrimination
41. Summary, continued US revaluation
Processes that interfere with conditioning:
42. Next Midterm Test #1