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Electricity Generation from Lignite. Great River Energy John Weeda Director ND Plant Operations. Reliable, low-cost electricity. Great River Energy 2 nd largest utility in MN 28 member cooperatives 850+ employees (MN and ND) 2,751 MW owned generation 469 MW wind

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Electricity Generation from Lignite

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Electricity generation from lignite

Electricity Generation

from Lignite

Great River Energy

John Weeda

Director ND Plant Operations


Reliable low cost electricity

Reliable, low-cost electricity

  • Great River Energy

    • 2nd largest utility in MN

    • 28 member cooperatives

  • 850+ employees (MN and ND)

  • 2,751 MW owned generation

  • 469 MW wind

  • 4,500+ miles transmission lines

  • $868.5 million 2011 operating revenue

  • $3.35 billion total assets

  • Capital markets


Our triple bottom line

Our triple bottom line…

  • Affordable rates

  • Reliable electric service

  • Environmental stewardship


Gre resource portfolio

GRE resource portfolio


Types of generation

Types of Generation

  • Baseload power is available for 24-7 demand

    • High-capacity generating plants

    • Plants cost less to operate when at full efficiency

  • Peaking power is available when demand is highest

    • Higher cost to operate, but quick start-up to react to demand changes

  • Intermittent power is available when supply allows

    • Cannot be relied upon to react to level of demand


Gre power plants

GRE Power Plants


Lignite

Lignite

A low-cost abundant resource for generation of electricity


Electricity generation from lignite

Fort Union Lignite

Over 2.0 million U.S. customers served – 850,000 Canadian customers


Electricity generation from lignite

Economic Impact

Every 4 megawatts of Lignite-based Electric Generation requires

about 3 jobs


Agenda

Agenda

  • Basics of generating electricity

  • Commercial generating technologies

  • Lignite as a fuel source

  • Controlling emissions

  • Generating electricity

  • Summary


Magnetic field around bar magnet

Magnetic Field Around Bar Magnet

Lines of force

(Flux)

N

S

Magnet


Producing electricity from magnetism

Producing Electricity From Magnetism

Coil

Meter

(Galvanometer)

Magnet


Basics of how electricity is made

Basics of How Electricity is Made

Producing

Electricity!

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

A source

of energy

such as

lignite

To push

blades

on a

shaft


Battle of the bulbs

Battle of the Bulbs


Electricity savings

Electricity Savings

The same amount of electricity used to light up one incandescent light bulb will light up how many LED bulbs?

  • 2 LED bulbs

  • 5 LED bulbs

  • 10 LED bulbs

  • 20 LED bulbs

  • 50 LED bulbs


Electricity savings1

Electricity Savings

The same amount of electricity used to light up one incandescent light bulb will light up how many LED bulbs?

  • 2 LED bulbs

  • 5 LED bulbs

  • 10 LED bulbs

  • 20 LED bulbs

  • 50 LED bulbs


Primary sources of energy for generation of electricity

Primary Sources of Energy for Generation of Electricity

  • Thermal generation - coal fired

  • Nuclear generation - reactors

  • Water - water wheel or water turbine

  • Wind Generators- wind turbines

  • Diesel - diesel engine

  • Natural gas - gas turbine


Wind generators

Wind Generators

Renewable, clean but intermittent


Basics of how electricity is made1

Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

wind

To push

blades

on a

shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Electricity generation from lignite

Basin Electric’s

Wind Facilities

PW 1

713 MW

Minot

Baldwin

Edgeley

Wilton

Day County

Hyde County

SMSC Wind

SD WindPartners

Pipestone

Chamberlain

Lakota

PWSD1

Hancock

Superior

Oaklane

Crosswinds


Water hydro generation

Water-Hydro Generation

Renewable, clean and reliable….but expensive and hard to build today


Basics of how electricity is made2

Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

water

To turn

blades

on a

shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Wind and water

Wind and Water

  • Renewable but intermittent

  • Load characteristics impact base-load units – follow the wind and water

  • High water or wind generation – base-load units drop off


Diesel generator

Diesel Generator

Used for short term peaking – expensive


Basics of how electricity is made3

Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

a diesel engine

To turn

a shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Gas turbine

Gas Turbine

Natural gas is cleaner but pricing is volatile


Electricity generation from lignite

Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

burning gas

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

To turn

blades on

a shaft

Producing

Electricity!


Exploring lignite as a fuel source with steam turbine generators

Exploring lignite as a fuel sourcewith steam turbine generators


Most common commercial technology for large scale electrical generation

Most Common Commercial Technology for Large-Scale Electrical Generation

Affordable, reliable, increasingly clean


How is lignite converted into electricity

How is Lignite Converted into Electricity?


How electricity is made using a steam turbine

How Electricity is MadeUsing a Steam Turbine

Emissions Control

Steam

Equipment

Turbine

Generator

Steam

Pulverized

Coal

Water

Condenser

Boiler

Hot Air


Lignite receiving stockpile

Lignite Receiving & Stockpile


Lignite conveyed into plant

Lignite conveyed into plant


Pulverizers prepare the lignite

Pulverizers prepare the lignite


Lignite fired boiler

Lignite-Fired Boiler

Bunker

Burners

Coal

Feeder

Lift

Line

Pulverizer


Electricity generation from lignite

Photo of pulverized coal

Photo of oil

during startup


2 400 psi steam pressure

2,400 PSI Steam Pressure

2,400

Pounds

2,400 pounds

per square inch


Steam turbine generator

Steam turbine generator


Electricity generation from lignite

Generator during assembly


Generator stator work

Generator stator work


Modern control room with computer equipment

Modern control room with computer equipment


Electricity generation from lignite

  • Plant Transformers

    • Auxiliary transformers for plant power

    • Step-Up transformers for sending power out


Power plant substation

Power Plant Substation


Lignite has some challenging characteristics

COAL

COAL

H O

2

Lignite has some challenging characteristics


Conversion efficiency is lower due to high moisture

Conversion Efficiency is lower due to high moisture

x

=

35%


Other challenging characteristics

Other Challenging Characteristics

  • Parameters of ND Lignite as found in nature

    • Heating value 6,000 to 7,000 BTU / Lb (other coals 8,000 to 12,000 BTU / Lb)

    • Ash content in ND lignite - 6% to 12% as burned

    • Sodium content high in many areas – contributes to challenges

      • Deposits in boiler

    • Other mineral constituents


Dryfining tm c an improve lignite

DryFiningTMCan Improve Lignite

Coal Creek Station

  • Low temperature waste heat is being used to reduce moisture in lignite

  • System segregates unwanted portion of fuel

  • Increases plant efficiency and reduces emissions


Results at coal creek station

Results at Coal Creek Station

  • Over 25 M tons refined

  • Reduced fuel input by approximately 4%

  • Reduced lime consumption by 13%

  • Increased overall plant efficiency by 4%

  • Reduced fuel moisture from 37.2% to 30.1%


Lignite boiler emissions in north dakota are controlled with up to date technology

Lignite boiler emissions in North Dakotaare controlled with up-to-date technology


Electricity generation from lignite

Cutaway view of precipitator


Nd power plants have upgraded environmental controls

ND Power Plants Have Upgraded Environmental Controls

100

More than $800 million has been invested by Basin Electric and Minnkota to retrofit Young 1 and LOS 1 & 2 with scrubbers – now 98% of ND generation is equipped with scrubbers


Electricity generation from lignite

Clean Air States

Source: EPA, May 1, 2012


Sources of electricity from lignite

Sources of Electricity from Lignite

3887 MW Total

1200

1,100

1000

900

800

673

650

MW Capacity

600

420

400

200

100

44

0

Heskett

Leland

Young

Antelope

Lewis &

Coyote

Coal

Olds

Valley

Clark

Creek


Heat power efficiency improvements

Heat & PowerEfficiency Improvements

  • Coal Creek Station sends a mix of primary & waste steam to Blue Flint Ethanol

    • Plant is low-cost producer of ethanol in the United States (no need to build or maintain a boiler)

  • Spiritwood Station is a combined heat & power plant located near Jamestown, ND

    • Will generate electricity for homes & businesses & steam for Cargill Malt

    • When fully utilized, plant will be 66 percent efficient

      • Compared to 30 to 35 percent efficient for most coal-based power plants


A rule of thumb

A Rule of Thumb

Capacity Requirement =

2 KW per person

North Dakota

650,000 persons X 2 KW per person

= 1,300,000 KW or 1,300 MW


Estimated demand

Estimated Demand

  • Bismarck / Mandan -190 MW

  • Fargo / Moorhead -350 MW

  • St. Cloud -335 MW

  • Minneapolis / St. Paul Area -???? MW

    1. 500 MW2. 1,000 MW

    3. 3,500 MW4. 6,000 MW


Estimated demand1

Estimated Demand

  • Bismarck / Mandan -190 MW

  • Fargo / Moorhead -350 MW

  • St. Cloud -335 MW

  • Minneapolis / St. Paul Area -3. 3,500 MW


Electricity generation from lignite

About one-fifth of MN’s electricity comes from ND -- the percentage is much higher in rural MN


Summary

Summary

  • Lignite is a low-cost, abundant resource for the generation of electricity that is beneficial for the region

  • Lignite is a secure and reliable source of energy

  • Lignite-based power plants are in compliance with all federal ambient air quality standards


Electricity generation from lignite

Questions

???


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