Generation of electricity from coal
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Generation of Electricity from Coal. *. www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com. In this Presentation. Basic of Power Generation Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil Combustion Process Power Plant Cycle 4 Main Path come across in any thermal power plant Boilers and Turbines

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Generation of electricity from coal

Generation of Electricity from Coal

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www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com


In this presentation

In this Presentation

  • Basic of Power Generation

  • Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil

  • Combustion Process

  • Power Plant Cycle

  • 4 Main Path come across in any thermal power plant

  • Boilers and Turbines

  • Transmission of Power and Switching

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Generation of electricity from coal

  • A thermal power station is a power plant in which the Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

  • After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated, this is known as a Rankine cycle


Generation of electricity from coal

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Generation of electricity from coal

Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution

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Coal to electricity basics

Coal to Electricity ….. Basics

Pollutants

Super Heated Steam

Alternating current in Stator

Turbine Torque

Coal

Mech. Energy Loss

Elet. Energy Loss

Heat

Loss

ASH

Heat Loss In Condenser

Thermal Energy

Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy

Chemical Energy

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Simplified diagram

Overview of Thermal Power Plant

Simplified Diagram

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Coal to electricity process

Coal to Electricity Process


For 1000 mw electricity generation the consumption of raw material is as follows

For 1000 MW electricity Generation the consumption of raw material is as follows

  • Coal - 12000 Ton/day

  • Water – 98000 Cubic meter / day

  • Oil - 100 Cubic metre / day

  • Air - 50000 Tons/ day

  • This also result in the following

  • Ash - 4200 tons/ day

  • CO2 - 30000 tons/ day

  • So2 - 600 tons/ day

  • No2 - 80 tons/ day

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Major energy sources of india

Major EnergySources of India

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Why coal

Why Coal?

Advantages of Coal Fuel

  • Abundantly available in India

  • Low cost

  • Technology for Power Generation well developed.

  • Easy to handle, transport, store and use

Shortcomings of Coal

  • Low Calorific Value

  • Large quantity to be Handled

  • Produces pollutants, ash

  • Disposal of ash is Problematic

  • Reserves depleting fast

Share of Coal in Power Generation

  • India’s Coal Reserves are estimated to be 206 billion tonnes. Present consumption is about 450 million tonnes.

  • Cost of coal for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of coal Rs 1000/MT) is Rs 0.75.

  • Cost of Gas for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of Gas Rs 6/SMC) is Rs 1.20.

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Nuclear

RES

3%

5%

Hydel

26%

Coal

55%

Diesel

1%

Gas

10%


Knowing more about coal

Knowing more about Coal

Coal Properties

  • Calorific Value

  • Grade of Coal (UHV)

  • Proximate Analysis

  • Ultimate Analysis

  • Ash and Minerals

  • Grindability

  • Rank

  • Physical Characteristics

Coal Transportation

  • Rail

  • Truck

  • Conveyor

  • Ship

Coal Beneficiation (Coal cleaning and reduction in total volume of coal.)

Coal production

  • Surface Mining

  • Underground Mining

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Generation of electricity from coal

Physical Characteristic - Hardness , Color, Weight, Volume

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Combustion of coal

Combustion of coal

  • Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur are sources of heat on combustion

  • Surface moisture removed on heating during pulverization.

  • Inherent moisture and volatiles are released at higher temperature, making coal porous and leading to char/ coke formation. (Thermal preparation stage)

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Combustion reactions carbon

Combustion Reactions (Carbon)

  • Main reactions

    2C+ O2= 2CO + 3950 BTU/lb(Deficit air)

    C+ O2= CO2 +14093 BTU/lb

    Secondary reactions

    2CO+ O2= 2CO2 + 4347BTU/lb

    C+ CO2= 2CO -7.25MJ/kg

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Combustion reactions carbon1

Combustion Reactions (Carbon)

  • Carbon reaction

    2C+O2=2CO[Eco =60kJ/mol]

    C+ O2=CO2[Eco2=140kJ/mol]

    reaction at 1200oC

    4C+3O2=2CO + 2CO2 (Ratio 1:1)

    Reaction at 1700oC

    3C + 2O2= 2CO +CO2(Ratio 2:1)

    It is desirable to supply combustion air at lower temperature regime in furnace

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Combustion reaction h 2 s

Combustion Reaction (H2, S)

  • Hydrogen reaction

    2H2+O2= 2H2O +61095 BTU/lb

  • Sulfur reaction

    S+O2= SO2+ 3980 BTU/lb (undesirable)

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Coal for combustion

Coal for combustion

  • Anthracite

  • Semi-anthracite

  • Bituminous

  • Semi-Bituminous

  • Lignite

  • Peat

  • High CV, low VM

  • High CV, low VM

  • Medium CV, medium VM

  • Medium CV, medium VM

  • Low CV, high VM, high TM

  • Very low CV, high VM & TM

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Fuel oil

Fuel Oil

  • liquid fuels used in power plants

    Light Diesel Oil (LDO) -

    Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) -

    • Droplet formation on atomization (by steam/ compressed air/ mechanical pressurization)

    • Combustion initiation by High energy spark ignition

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Basic power plant cycle

Basic Power Plant Cycle

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Modified rankine cycle

Modified Rankine Cycle


The four main circuits

The four main circuits

one would come across in any thermal power plant layout are- Coal and Ash Circuit- Air and Gas Circuit- Feed Water and Steam Circuit- Cooling Water Circuit

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Coal and ash circuit coal circuit

Coal and Ash CircuitCoal Circuit

Wagon Tripler Conveyer Belt

Magnetic Separation Crusher (20-25 mm) Bunker Mill

Burner

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Coal and ash circuit

Coal and Ash Circuit

Ash Circuit

Bottom Ash Fly Ash

(80%)(20%)

SlurrySilo

Ash Ponds

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Air and gas circuit

Air and Gas Circuit

  • Fuel gas Circuit

    FurnaceSuper heater Economiser

    APH ESP ID Fan

    Chimney

    Air Circuit

    FD Fan APH Wind Box

    Furnace

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Water cycle

Water Cycle

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Cooling water circuit

Cooling Water Circuit

Circulating Pump

Condenser

Cooling Tower

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Feed water steam flow diagram

Feed Water & Steam Flow Diagram


Boiler steam generator

Boiler/ steam generator

  • Steam generating device for a specific purpose.

  • Capable to meet variation in load demand

  • Capable of generating steam in a range of operating pressure and temperature

  • For utility purpose, it should generate steam uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature for running steam turbines.

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Boiler steam generator1

Boiler/ steam generator

  • Raw materials for design of boilers

  • Coal from mines

  • Ambient air

  • Water from natural resources

  • (river, ponds)

  • Generating heat energy

  • Air for combustion

  • Working fluid for steam

  • generation, possessing heat energy

  • A 500MW steam generator consumes about 8000 tonnes of coal every day

  • It will be considered good, if it requires about 200 cubic meter of DM water in a day

  • It will produce about 9500 tonnes of Carbon di Oxide every day

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Generation of electricity from coal

ARRANGEMENT OF MAIN BOILER (STEAM GENERATOR)

  • A STEAM GENERATOR IS A COMPLEX INTEGRATION OF THE FOLLOWING ACCESSORIES:

    * ECONOMISER * LTSH

    * BOILER DRUM * DIV PANEL

    * DOWN COMERS * PLATEN SH

    * CCW PUMPS * REHEATER

    * BOTTOM RING HEADER * BURNERS

    * WATER WALLS * APHs

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Type of boilers used in thermal power plant

Type of Boilers used in Thermal Power Plant

  • Water Tube Boiler: Here the heat source is outside the tubes and the water to be heated is inside. Most high-pressure and large boilers are of this type. In the water-tube boiler, gases flow over water-filled tubes. These water-filled tubes are in turn connected to large containers called drums.

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Flame inside furnace

Flame Inside Furnace

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Generation of electricity from coal

Tangential Firing System

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Steam flows from boiler to turbine

Steam Flows from Boiler to turbine

Bypass

Turbine

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Impulse and reaction turbine

Impulse and reaction Turbine

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Turbine are multistage

Turbine are multistage

The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam

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Generation of electricity from coal

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Generator transformer

Generator Transformer

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Electrical systems in power plant

Electrical Systems in Power Plant

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Generation of electricity from coal

Switchyard One line Diagram

Transfer Bus 400 KV

Main Bus II

Main Bus I

Bus

Isolator

CB

CB

CB

Transfer Bus

Bay

GT

20.5/400KV

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Gen Bay

Feeder Bay


400 kv switchyard

400 KV Switchyard

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Sf6 cb

SF6 CB

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Sf 6 breaker

SF-6 Breaker

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800 kv gis

800 KV GIS

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Power supply systems

Power Supply Systems

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Thank you

THANK YOU

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