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Generation of Electricity from Coal. *. www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com. In this Presentation. Basic of Power Generation Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil Combustion Process Power Plant Cycle 4 Main Path come across in any thermal power plant Boilers and Turbines

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Generation of electricity from coal
Generation of Electricity from Coal

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www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com


In this presentation
In this Presentation

  • Basic of Power Generation

  • Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil

  • Combustion Process

  • Power Plant Cycle

  • 4 Main Path come across in any thermal power plant

  • Boilers and Turbines

  • Transmission of Power and Switching

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  • A thermal power station is a power plant in which the Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

  • After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated, this is known as a Rankine cycle


* is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

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* is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

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Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

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Coal to electricity basics
Coal to Electricity ….. Basics is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

Pollutants

Super Heated Steam

Alternating current in Stator

Turbine Torque

Coal

Mech. Energy Loss

Elet. Energy Loss

Heat

Loss

ASH

Heat Loss In Condenser

Thermal Energy

Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy

Chemical Energy

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Simplified diagram

Overview of Thermal Power Plant is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .

Simplified Diagram

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Coal to electricity process
Coal to Electricity Process is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine and does some other work and produce electricity .


For 1000 mw electricity generation the consumption of raw material is as follows
For 1000 MW electricity Generation the consumption of raw material is as follows

  • Coal - 12000 Ton/day

  • Water – 98000 Cubic meter / day

  • Oil - 100 Cubic metre / day

  • Air - 50000 Tons/ day

  • This also result in the following

  • Ash - 4200 tons/ day

  • CO2 - 30000 tons/ day

  • So2 - 600 tons/ day

  • No2 - 80 tons/ day

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Major energy sources of india
Major Energy material is as followsSources of India

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Why coal
Why Coal? material is as follows

Advantages of Coal Fuel

  • Abundantly available in India

  • Low cost

  • Technology for Power Generation well developed.

  • Easy to handle, transport, store and use

Shortcomings of Coal

  • Low Calorific Value

  • Large quantity to be Handled

  • Produces pollutants, ash

  • Disposal of ash is Problematic

  • Reserves depleting fast

Share of Coal in Power Generation

  • India’s Coal Reserves are estimated to be 206 billion tonnes. Present consumption is about 450 million tonnes.

  • Cost of coal for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of coal Rs 1000/MT) is Rs 0.75.

  • Cost of Gas for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of Gas Rs 6/SMC) is Rs 1.20.

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Nuclear

RES

3%

5%

Hydel

26%

Coal

55%

Diesel

1%

Gas

10%


Knowing more about coal
Knowing more about Coal material is as follows

Coal Properties

  • Calorific Value

  • Grade of Coal (UHV)

  • Proximate Analysis

  • Ultimate Analysis

  • Ash and Minerals

  • Grindability

  • Rank

  • Physical Characteristics

Coal Transportation

  • Rail

  • Truck

  • Conveyor

  • Ship

Coal Beneficiation (Coal cleaning and reduction in total volume of coal.)

Coal production

  • Surface Mining

  • Underground Mining

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Combustion of coal
Combustion of coal material is as follows

  • Carbon, hydrogen, sulfur are sources of heat on combustion

  • Surface moisture removed on heating during pulverization.

  • Inherent moisture and volatiles are released at higher temperature, making coal porous and leading to char/ coke formation. (Thermal preparation stage)

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Combustion reactions carbon
Combustion Reactions (Carbon) material is as follows

  • Main reactions

    2C + O2 = 2CO + 3950 BTU/lb(Deficit air)

    C + O2 = CO2 +14093 BTU/lb

    Secondary reactions

    2CO + O2 = 2CO2 + 4347BTU/lb

    C + CO2 = 2CO -7.25MJ/kg

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Combustion reactions carbon1
Combustion Reactions (Carbon) material is as follows

  • Carbon reaction

    2C + O2 =2CO [Eco =60kJ/mol]

    C + O2 =CO2 [Eco2 =140kJ/mol]

    reaction at 1200oC

    4C + 3O2 =2CO + 2CO2 (Ratio 1:1)

    Reaction at 1700oC

    3C + 2O2 = 2CO +CO2 (Ratio 2:1)

    It is desirable to supply combustion air at lower temperature regime in furnace

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Combustion reaction h 2 s
Combustion Reaction (H material is as follows2, S)

  • Hydrogen reaction

    2H2 + O2 = 2H2O +61095 BTU/lb

  • Sulfur reaction

    S + O2 = SO2 + 3980 BTU/lb (undesirable)

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Coal for combustion
Coal for combustion material is as follows

  • Anthracite

  • Semi-anthracite

  • Bituminous

  • Semi-Bituminous

  • Lignite

  • Peat

  • High CV, low VM

  • High CV, low VM

  • Medium CV, medium VM

  • Medium CV, medium VM

  • Low CV, high VM, high TM

  • Very low CV, high VM & TM

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* material is as follows


Fuel oil
Fuel Oil material is as follows

  • liquid fuels used in power plants

    Light Diesel Oil (LDO) -

    Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) -

    • Droplet formation on atomization (by steam/ compressed air/ mechanical pressurization)

    • Combustion initiation by High energy spark ignition

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Basic power plant cycle
Basic Power Plant Cycle material is as follows

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Modified rankine cycle
Modified Rankine Cycle material is as follows


The four main circuits
The four main circuits material is as follows

one would come across in any thermal power plant layout are- Coal and Ash Circuit- Air and Gas Circuit- Feed Water and Steam Circuit- Cooling Water Circuit

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Coal and ash circuit coal circuit
Coal and Ash Circuit material is as followsCoal Circuit

Wagon Tripler Conveyer Belt

Magnetic Separation Crusher (20-25 mm) Bunker Mill

Burner

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Coal and ash circuit
Coal and Ash Circuit material is as follows

Ash Circuit

Bottom Ash Fly Ash

(80%) (20%)

Slurry Silo

Ash Ponds

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Air and gas circuit
Air and Gas Circuit material is as follows

  • Fuel gas Circuit

    Furnace Super heater Economiser

    APH ESP ID Fan

    Chimney

    Air Circuit

    FD Fan APH Wind Box

    Furnace

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Water cycle
Water Cycle material is as follows

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Cooling water circuit
Cooling Water Circuit material is as follows

Circulating Pump

Condenser

Cooling Tower

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Feed water steam flow diagram
Feed Water & Steam Flow Diagram material is as follows


Boiler steam generator
Boiler/ steam generator material is as follows

  • Steam generating device for a specific purpose.

  • Capable to meet variation in load demand

  • Capable of generating steam in a range of operating pressure and temperature

  • For utility purpose, it should generate steam uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature for running steam turbines.

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Boiler steam generator1
Boiler/ steam generator material is as follows

  • Raw materials for design of boilers

  • Coal from mines

  • Ambient air

  • Water from natural resources

  • (river, ponds)

  • Generating heat energy

  • Air for combustion

  • Working fluid for steam

  • generation, possessing heat energy

  • A 500MW steam generator consumes about 8000 tonnes of coal every day

  • It will be considered good, if it requires about 200 cubic meter of DM water in a day

  • It will produce about 9500 tonnes of Carbon di Oxide every day

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ARRANGEMENT OF MAIN BOILER (STEAM GENERATOR) material is as follows

  • A STEAM GENERATOR IS A COMPLEX INTEGRATION OF THE FOLLOWING ACCESSORIES:

    * ECONOMISER * LTSH

    * BOILER DRUM * DIV PANEL

    * DOWN COMERS * PLATEN SH

    * CCW PUMPS * REHEATER

    * BOTTOM RING HEADER * BURNERS

    * WATER WALLS * APHs

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Type of boilers used in thermal power plant
Type of Boilers used in Thermal Power Plant material is as follows

  • Water Tube Boiler: Here the heat source is outside the tubes and the water to be heated is inside. Most high-pressure and large boilers are of this type. In the water-tube boiler, gases flow over water-filled tubes. These water-filled tubes are in turn connected to large containers called drums.

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Flame inside furnace
Flame Inside Furnace material is as follows

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Tangential Firing System material is as follows

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* material is as follows


* material is as follows


* material is as follows


Steam flows from boiler to turbine
Steam Flows from Boiler to turbine material is as follows

Bypass

Turbine

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* material is as follows

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* material is as follows


Impulse and reaction turbine
Impulse and reaction Turbine material is as follows

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Turbine are multistage
Turbine are multistage material is as follows

The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam

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* material is as follows


Generator transformer
Generator Transformer material is as follows

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Electrical systems in power plant
Electrical Systems in Power Plant material is as follows

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Switchyard One line Diagram material is as follows

Transfer Bus 400 KV

Main Bus II

Main Bus I

Bus

Isolator

CB

CB

CB

Transfer Bus

Bay

GT

20.5/400KV

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Gen Bay

Feeder Bay


400 kv switchyard
400 KV Switchyard material is as follows

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Sf6 cb
SF6 CB material is as follows

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Sf 6 breaker
SF-6 Breaker material is as follows

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800 kv gis
800 KV GIS material is as follows

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Power supply systems
Power Supply Systems material is as follows

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Thank you
THANK YOU material is as follows

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