Introduction. An achievement gap refers to the observed disparity on a number of educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by race and socioeconomic status. . As racial diversity grows in our society achievement gaps among the minority students begin to increase. Not only are the minority races behind in education, but the children from low income families are also behind in school.We as future teachers need to be prepared to come up with 1145
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1. Achievement Gaps Jessica Allen
November 2, 2007
3. As racial diversity grows in our society achievement gaps among the minority students begin to increase.
Not only are the minority races behind in education, but the children from low income families are also behind in school.
We as future teachers need to be prepared to come up with different methods to help close achievement gaps. Introduction Continued
4. Overview This presentation will explain the achievement gaps among minority races/ethnic groups and social classes in public education today.
I will also explain the ways in which the United States is trying to close achievement gaps among minority students. Teachers need to find ways to close achievement gaps in their classroom.
5. Measuring Achievement Gaps There are several ways to measure the achievement gap. One common method is to compare academic performance among African-American, Hispanic, and white students on standardized assessments.
Another way to measure the achievement gap is to compare the highest level of educational attainment for various groups.
6. Race and Intelligence The study of race and intelligence is a controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. This study seeks to identify and explain the differences of intelligence as well as the underlying causes of such variance.
Studies have shown that even when African Americans and Hispanics come from middle class families their achievement scores are still lower than white students.
7. Theories about the possibility of a correlation among race and intelligence has been around since the 16th century.
The contemporary debate focuses on the nature, causes, and importance of ethnic differences in intelligence test scores and other measures of cognitive ability.
Today we are still trying to figure out if race can be considered an issue in why there are achievement gaps.
8. The graph on the left shows the achievement gaps between Hispanics and whites from 2004 to 2005.
The graph on the right shows the achievement gaps among African Americans and whites from 2004 to 2005.
9. Mean IQ Scores The mean IQ scores among African Americans has been measured as approximately 85.
The mean IQ score of Hispanics has been measured as approximately 89.
The mean IQ score of whites has been measured as approximately 100.
11. This graph shows that there is a significant gap among minority students. The average test score for a Caucasian student is an 100. Average scores on all four of these tests for African American students are less than an 100.
12. Math Scores
13. Reading Scores
15. African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, and immigrants for whom English is not a first language lag behind English-speaking, native-born, white students.
There is a lot of evidence for achievement gaps among minority races
drop-out rates are higher among minority races
The number of students from a minority race placed in the “gifted” program is very low
The number of students from a minority race that go to college and graduate college is lower
The amount of people from a minority race in professional programs is lower
16. This is a graph from 1996 that shows the percent of High School dropouts in the United States.
As you can see the highest percentage of dropouts occurs with the foreign-born Hispanics.
17. The Core Curriculum is usually deemed the central study, and is usually made mandatory for all students in the school system.
The graph shows that the number of students in Core Curriculum classes has increased, but is still low.
19. Students from low income families The number of children living in low income families is rising.
Among the 70 million children living in the United States, 27 million, nearly 40%, are living in low- income families
17% of all American children live at or below the poverty level.
20. % of low-income families vary by race 62% of Hispanic children
60% of African American children
28% of Asian children
26% of White children
21. By the time children that come from low income families begin public school they lag significantly behind their more affluent peer academically, socially, and physically.
Children and adolescents from low-income families and the underclass (a term describing the poorest of the poor and those who are trapped in a cycle of poverty) are the least likely to graduate high school.
Children raised in poverty are likely to suffer from hunger and malnutrition which can sap their energy for schoolwork.
22. Lower-income fourth and eighth graders lagged 20 to 30 points behind their peers on math and reading test
Poor Southern students who make up the majority of their states’ student populations also have lower college attendance rates than their peers.
23. This graph shows income has a great impact on how a child does in school. Lower income students have lower SAT scores in ever race than the higher income students.
24. Closing Achievement Gaps Head Start Programs have been very beneficial in helping children from low income families.
Head Start Programs are pre k schools that enroll children from low income families.
Head Start Programs have focused on school readiness, and have better prepared young children for their first few years of school.
Head Start Programs are very beneficial at the beginning of school years, but do not seem to always have a lasting effect on students.
25. The government has also tried to close achievement gaps by changing The Federal Education Policy.
The No Child Left Behind Act requires states to set the same performance targets for children from economically disadvantaged families, with disabilities, with limited English proficiency, and from all major ethnic and racial groups.
Within a school, if any student subgroup persistently fails to meet performance targets, districts must provide public school choice and supplemental services to those students and eventually restructure the school's governance. This is required even if the school performs well overall.
26. Further Actions!Improving the Quality of Teachers Students need effective teaching in order to achieve. Research suggests that recruiting qualified teachers is an important way to close the achievement gap.
The schools with the biggest achievement gap tend to attract the lowest numbers of quality teachers. Students that are low income or minority tend to receive the most inexperienced teachers at their schools.
The United States needs more teachers with quality teaching skills, and new ideas to help close achievement gaps.
The United States needs more teachers that respect and care for their students.
27. Importance of Closing Achievement Gap It is very important to close the achievement gap among students for many reasons
To lower drop out rates
To lower the poverty cycle
To have a higher number of students attending college
To have a higher number of people in professional programs, etc.
28. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achievement_gap
This website is a great resource to use when learning about achievement gaps.
The website had a lot of information and graphs that explained and showed the statistics of achievement gaps.
29. Race and Achievement Gap http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/15_04/Race154.shtml
This website is about the historical facts, gaps in test scores, and numerical scales related to achievement gaps among minority races.
30. Study: Most students in South are poor http://www.mcclatchydc.com/homepage/story/20922.html
This article is about poor students in public schools. It shows that the majority of poor students are in the South.
31. Closing the Achievement Gap http://www.subnet.nga.org/educlear/achievement/index.html
This websites gives examples of how the government is taking action in closing the achievement gap, and it also gives options for further action in closing achievement gaps.
32. Minority test takers make significant gains on SAT: but achievement gap between White, minority students persists http://findarticle.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_16_21/ai_n6355356
This article tells about the gains in the average test scores, and the amount of points gained on test.
The article also reports a gap between white students and students from other racial and ethnic groups continues.
33. Reaching All Learners: Perspectives on Gender, Class, Ethnicity, and Special Needs This book explains the difficulties presented in low income families, and minority ethnic groups.
It also explains what goes on in an everyday high-poverty school.
Audience: Future teachers
34. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices This book explains the achievement gaps in our society today, and gives options to close them.
This book helps educators be prepared for minority and low income students.
It also gives ways to close the achievement gap.
Audience: Teachers, Teacher Educators, Community
35. Conclusion Achievement Gaps are presented in many classrooms across the United States. Teachers need to be able to teach students that are learning slower than others, while teaching the fast learners as well. All students’ brains need to be stimulated on a day to day basis. If teachers concentrate more on how they can help slower learning children, and children that are behind we may one day be able to close achievement gaps.
36. References Bennett, Christine I. (1986). Multicultural Education Theory and Practice. Pearson Education, Inc.
Closing The Achievement Gap: Retrieved November 2007. Website: http://www.subnet.nga.org/educlear/achievement/index.html.
McClatchy Washington Bureau: Study: Most students in South are poor. Retrieved October 2007. Website: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/homepage/story/20922.html.
Minority test takers make significant gains on SAT: but achievement gap between White, minority students persists: Retrieved November 2007. Website: http://findarticle.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_16_21/ai_n6355356.
Rethinking Schools: Race and the Achievement Gap. Retrieved October 2007. Website: http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/15_04/Race154.shtml.
Wikipedia: Achievment Gap. Retrieved October 2007, from Wikipedia. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achievement_gap.
Williams, Belinda. (2004). Closing the Achievement Gap: A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices. ASCD.