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Closing Achievement Gaps. Catherine Good Columbia University January 14, 2005. Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce: Women, Underrepresented Minorities, and their S&E Careers. The Achievement Gap. Males outperform females on the math portion of the SAT by 36 points.

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Closing Achievement Gaps

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Closing achievement gaps
Closing Achievement Gaps

Catherine Good

Columbia University

January 14, 2005

Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce: Women, Underrepresented Minorities, and their S&E Careers


The achievement gap
The Achievement Gap

  • Males outperform females on the math portion of the SAT by 36 points.

  • Compared to white students, Blacks and Latinos

    • Earn lower standardized test scores and grades.

    • Are less likely to go to college.

    • Have higher drop out rates.



Closing achievement gaps

“In the perception of society my athletic talents are genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation”

-Dr. Neil de Grasse Tyson

http://research.amnh.org/users/tyson/speeches/PhDConvocationAddress.html


Stereotype threat steele aronson 1995
Stereotype Threat genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation” Steele & Aronson, 1995

Unpleasant apprehension arising from the awareness of a negative ability stereotype in a situation where the stereotype is relevant, and thus confirmable.


Stereotype threat
Stereotype Threat genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation”


Stereotype threat effects on black students performance steele aronson 1995
Stereotype Threat Effects on Black Students’ Performance genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation” Steele & Aronson, 1995


Black students who were about to take a diagnostic test
Black students who were about to take a diagnostic test... genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation”

  • Showed greater cognitive activation of racial stereotypes.

  • Rated standardized tests as more biased against minorities.

  • Rated stereotypical things (liking rap music, or being lazy) as less self-characteristic.

  • Were less likely to indicate their race on the test booklet.


Additional studies finding performance effects
Additional Studies Finding Performance Effects genetic; I am a likely mugger-rapist; my academic failures are expected; and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation”

  • Women taking math tests (Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn 1999)

  • Latinos taking verbal tests (Aronson & Salinas, 1997)

  • Low SES students taking verbal tests (Croizet & Claire, 1998)

  • Blacks and miniature golf (Stone, 2002)

  • White males taking math tests when compared to Asians (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele, & Brown, 1999)



Closing achievement gaps

Intelligence is fixed threat

Trait largely determined by nature

Intelligence is malleable

Quality that can be increased through nurture

  • Desire similar outcome

  • achieving good scores, doing “well”

Different motivation for pursuing this outcome

Self-Theories of IntelligenceDweck, 1999

Incremental Theorists

Entity Theorists

  • Learning goals

    • seeking to develop ability

  • Performance goals

    • seeking to validate ability as good relative to others

“When I take a course in school, it is very important for me to validate that I am smarter than other students.”

“In school I am always seeking opportunities to develop new skills and acquire new knowledge.”


Reducing stereotype threat the role of implicit theories
Reducing Stereotype Threat: threatThe Role of Implicit Theories

  • Directly teaching an incremental theory

    • increased enjoyment of education, valuing academics, and GPA for African American college students (Aronson, Fried, & Good, 2002).

    • increased standardized test scores for 7th grade girls in math and Hispanic students in reading comprehension (Good, Aronson & Inzlicht, 2003).


Increasing college gpa aronson fried good 2002
Increasing College GPA threatAronson, Fried, & Good, 2002


Maintaining academic identification in the face of threat aronson fried good 2002
Maintaining Academic Identification in the Face of Threat threatAronson, Fried, & Good, 2002

“Considering all the things that make you who you are, how important is academic achievement?”


Increasing math standardized test scores good aronson inzlicht 2003
Increasing Math Standardized Test Scores threatGood, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003


Increasing reading comprehension standardized test scores good aronson inzlicht 2003
Increasing Reading Comprehension Standardized Test Scores threatGood, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003


Conclusions so far
Conclusions So Far threat

  • Stereotype threat contributes to the achievement gaps.

  • Stereotype threat causes women to bifurcate their social identities.

  • Eliminating stereotype threat can reduce the achievement gap.

  • Directly teaching incremental theories about intelligence

    • helps stereotyped students maintain high achievement.

    • reduces disidentification from academics.


Creating an entity versus an incremental environment
Creating an Entity versus an Incremental Environment threat

  • Extolling the “genius” of prominent scientists and mathematicians.

  • Valuing quick, effortless solutions.

  • De-emphasizing the hard work that underlies scientific discovery.

  • Creating a culture of talent.


Hypotheses
Hypotheses threat

  • Academic contexts that convey the idea that intelligence is a fixed trait

    • create a fragile sense of belonging.

    • create vulnerability to stereotype threat.

  • Academic contexts that portray skills as acquirable

    • foster a more hardy sense of belonging.

    • provide resiliency against stereotype threat.



Procedure good dweck rattan 2004
Procedure threatGood, Dweck, & Rattan, 2004

  • Participants

    • Calculus I and Calculus II students

    • 320 Females

  • Procedure

    • Perceptions of Environmental Stereotyping (PEST)

    • Perceptions of Environmental Entity Theory of Math Intelligence (PEET)

    • Sense of Belonging to Math (SOB)

      • Time 1: 3 weeks into the semester

      • Time 2: after midterms

      • Time 3: 1 week before finals


Sense of belonging1
Sense of Belonging threat

When I am in a math setting…

  • Membershipa = .95

    • I typically have felt that I belong to the math community.

  • Acceptance a = .91

    • I feel like an outsider.

    • I feel accepted.

  • Fade a = .79

    • I try to say as little as possible.

  • Affect a = .89

    • I feel anxious.

    • I feel comfortable.

  • Trust a = .75

    • I trust my instructors to be committed to helping me learn.


Closing achievement gaps

People in my calculus class… threat

  • PEET (4 items) a= .97

    • believe that people have a certain amount of math intelligence and they can’t really do much to change it.

    • believe that people can learn new things, but they can’t really change their basic math intelligence.

  • PEST (6 items)a = .93

    • believe that females are as good as males in calculus.

    • would trust a woman just as much as they would trust a man to figure out important math problems.

    • believe that females can do just as well as males in math.


Effects of perceiving an entity environment and stereotyping on females sense of belonging to math
Effects of Perceiving an threatEntity Environment and Stereotyping on Females’ Sense of Belonging to Math


Effects of perceiving an entity environment and stereotyping on females intent to pursue math
Effects of Perceiving an threatEntity Environment and Stereotyping on Females’ Intent to Pursue Math


Closing achievement gaps

PEET threat

-.21

Future

Intent

-.26

.47

.48

PEST

SOB

Interest

-.18

.10

.33

.16

P x P

SAT

p = .73

NFI = .99; RMSEA = .000

p for test of close fit = .99


Closing achievement gaps

PEET threat

-.20

Final

Grade

-.26

.26

PEST

SOB

-.18

.34

.30

P x P

SAT

p = .07

NFI = .99; RMSEA = .04;

p for test of close fit = .58


Closing achievement gaps
The Effects of Perceiving an Entity Environment and Stereotyping on Middle School Girls’ Sense of BelongingGood, Dweck & Rattan, 2004


The effects of perceiving an entity environment and stereotyping on middle school girls math grades
The Effects of Perceiving an Entity Environment and Stereotyping on Middle School Girls’ Math Grades

* p = .10


Conclusions
Conclusions Stereotyping on

  • The race and gender gaps in achievement are due (in part) to the negative stereotypes about minorities’ and females’ abilities.

  • The gaps can be reduced by fostering an incremental theory of intelligence.

  • Learning environments that convey stereotyping and a fixed view of intelligence undermine females’ sense of belonging to math which in turn affect grades.


Conclusions1
Conclusions Stereotyping on

  • The race and gender gaps in achievement are due (in part) to the negative stereotypes about minorities’ and females’ abilities.

  • The gaps can be reduced by fostering an incremental theory of intelligence.

  • Learning environments that convey a fixed view of intelligence and stereotyping undermine females’ sense of belonging to math which in turn affects grades.

  • Learning environments that convey a malleable view of intelligence enable females to maintain a sense of belonging and high grades, even in the face of stereotypes.


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