Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction
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Unpacking the Expectations for Classroom Assessment and Instruction. Michigan Council for the Social Studies Annual State Professional Development Conference. Stan Masters Lenawee ISD February 19, 2008. POP. Purpose

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Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

Unpacking the Expectations for Classroom Assessment and Instruction

Michigan Council for the Social Studies

Annual State Professional Development Conference

Stan Masters

Lenawee ISD

February 19, 2008


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

POP

  • Purpose

    • Analyzing the new GLCEs and HSCEs for good classroom assessment and instruction, leading to increased student achievement

  • Objectives

    • Differentiate between the purposes of assessment

    • Unpack expectations into targets

    • Match targets to methods of assessment

    • Develop a set of assessments for your classroom

  • Procedure

    • PowerPoint slides for presenting information

    • Practice with the expectations

    • Use of templates and protocols


Keys to quality classroom assessment

Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment

  • Clear Purposes

  • Clear Targets

  • Good Design & Methods

  • Sound Communication

  • Student Involvement


Indicators of sound classroom assessment practice p 27

Indicators of Sound Classroom Assessment Practice(p.27)

Skill in gathering accurate information

+Effective use of information and procedures

____________________________________

Sound Classroom Assessment Practice


Keys to quality classroom assessment1

Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment

  • Clear Purposes

  • Clear Targets

  • Good Design & Methods

  • Sound Communication

  • Student Involvement


Deepening our ideas about assessment

Deepening our ideas about assessment

  • What is the distinction between…

    assessment for learning

    assessment of learning?


Purposes of assessments

assessment for learning

diagnostic (given before instruction to gather information on where to start)

formative (monitors student progress during instruction)

assessment of learning

summative (the final task at the end of a unit, a course, or a semester)

Purposes of Assessments

Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17, 2004)


Both are needed

Both are needed!

  • Students need to know…(p.34)

    • Where they are going

    • Where they are now

    • How to close the gap

  • Teachers need to find balance…(p.35-36)

    • to improve student achievement

    • to communicate to various stakeholders


Seven strategies of assessment for learning p 42

Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning (p.42)

  • Where am I going?

    • Clear targets

    • Models of work

  • Where am I now?

    • Descriptive Feedback

    • Student self-assessment/goal setting

  • How can I close the gap?

    • Lessons that focus on one target at a time

    • Teaching self-reflection

    • Student record-keeping


So do your students know what are the targets for their learning

So, do your students know what are the targets for their learning?


Keys to quality classroom assessment2

Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment

  • Clear Purposes

  • Clear Targets

  • Good Design & Methods

  • Sound Communication

  • Student Involvement


Where does curriculum come from

Where does curriculum come from?

  • National content organizations documents

  • State standards documents

    • Local curriculum is then created from these documents

      • Organized into units

      • Determine essential questions and key concepts

    • Aligned with state accountability assessments


Backward design addresses all three parts of the curriculum triangle

Backward Design Addresses All Three Parts of the Curriculum Triangle

Content

Assessment

Instruction


Problems with our curriculum

Problems with Our Curriculum

  • It sits on a shelf.

  • We go no further than creating units, activities, and/or projects.

  • We rely on a textbook.

  • Teachers disagree on the outcomes.

  • There are too many outcomes.


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

Kinds of Learning Targets Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis. (2006). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Portland, OR: ETS.

  • Knowledge – The facts and concepts we want students to know and understand.

  • Reasoning – Students use what they know to reason and solve problems

  • Skills – Students use their knowledge and reasoning to act skillfully

  • Products – Students use their knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a concrete product.

  • Dispositions – Students’ attitudes about school and learning.

(p. 75)


Helpful hints to targets p 64

Helpful Hints to Targets (p.64)

  • Knowledge targets are identified in the noun/noun phrase found in the benchmark

  • Reasoning targets are identified in the verb/verb phrases found in the benchmark

    • analytical, compare/contrast, synthesis, classification, inference/deduction, evaluative (p.70)

  • Skill targets always have knowledge targets

  • Product targets have to be discerned apart from the product tasks we ask students to create

  • Disposition targets reflect attitudes or feelings


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

(BUT I WANT THEM TO DEEPLY APPRECIATE THE USEFULNESSES OF BAR GRAPHS)

Organize

data

using

concrete objects, pictures, tallies, tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs


Practice unpacking

Practice Unpacking

  • Choose a outcome (benchmark/expectation) that your students will learn and you will teach in an upcoming unit of instruction.

  • Write the outcome at the top of your target/method planning sheet.

  • Complete the left hand side of the chart.

    • Knowledge/understanding, reasoning, skills, products, dispositions

  • Check your understanding of the targets with a partner

  • As a group:

    • Dialogue about your interpretation of the identified targets

    • Determine and note if there are any targets that need to added, changed, or deleted


Unpacking for the student

Unpacking for the Student

  • Targets are clearer for the student when they are put into positive “I can” statements.

  • They may be unpacked to include more concrete understandings

I

CAN


Create i can statements

Create “I Can” Statements

  • Using your previous unpacked learning outcome, create “I can” statements for your students.


Keys to quality classroom assessment3

Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment

  • Clear Purposes

  • Clear Targets

  • Good Design & Methods

  • Sound Communication

  • Student Involvement


Assessment study donegal school district donegal pa http www2 yk psu edu jlg18 dragon index html

Assessment StudyDonegal School District, Donegal, PAhttp://www2.yk.psu.edu/~jlg18/dragon/index.html

  • Baseline data for 1999-2000

    • collected 661 tests/assessments during targeted collection period

    • randomly selected 20% or 142 for a sample


Findings

Findings

  • Testing of low-level cognition (understanding and comprehension levels on Bloom's Taxonomy) predominated all types of testing at all levels. (75.5%)

    2. Traditional formats of multiple choice, true and false, matching, fill-in the-blank predominated all other formats. (80%)

    3. Short answer writing was never scored using a rubric. (0%)

    4. Essay formats are very rarely used (.05%) and when used rarely were scored with a rubric (.02%).


Findings1

Findings

5. Rubrics that were available were often poorly crafted with checklist formats sometimes (33%) being represented as rubrics.

6. Problem-solving at any level above comprehension was rarely required (.04%), never scored with a rubric (0%) and problem-solvers were rarely called upon to write to justify or explain process or appropriateness of answer to problem posed (.04%).

7. Performance items were most often score sheets for projects where students had a tangible product to be evaluated. Rubrics rarely existed for such performances (.14%).

8. Performances never (0%) involved a written explanation of the process used or anything else.


Plan of action

Plan of Action

  • Professional development on assessment

  • Unpacked expectations for assessment

  • Developed a standards template for designing assessment tasks

  • Met in teams to analyze assessments


Purposes of assessments1

assessment for learning

diagnostic (given before instruction to gather information on where to start)

formative (monitors student progress during instruction)

assessment of learning

summative (the final task at the end of a unit, a course, or a semester)

Purposes of Assessments

Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17, 2004)

Ma and Pa Kettle

Ma and Pa Kettle


Talking points presentation by jay mctighe november 30 2007 macomb isd

Talking PointsPresentation by Jay McTighe, November 30, 2007, Macomb ISD

  • “Students should be presumed innocent of understanding until convicted by evidence.”

  • Prior knowledge is like the largest part of the iceberg.

  • “Think photo album versus snapshot” when it comes to assessment


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

Formative Assessment TechniquesSource: Fisher, D. and Frey, N. (2007). Checking for Understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, pp. 5-12

  • Main points:

    • Aligns with enduring understandings

    • Allows for differentiation

    • Focuses on gap analysis

    • Leads to precise teaching


Formative assessment techniques

Formative Assessment techniques

  • Oral Language

    • Accountable talk, nonverbal cues, value lineups, retellings, think-pair-share, whip around

  • Questions

    • Response cards, hand signals, personal response systems, Socratic seminars

  • Writing

    • Interactive writing, read-write-pair-share, summary writing, RAFT

  • Tests

    • Multiple choice with misconceptions as distracters, short answer with word banks, true-false items with correction for the false items


Methods of assessment

Methods of Assessment

Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis, Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Assessment Training Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 91-93.

  • Selected response

    • one answer is correct; sometimes taken from a list

  • Extended written response

    • constructed into sentences; criteria given for quality

  • Performance assessment

    • observed product of learning; criteria given for quality

  • Personal communication

    • interaction with student; uses checklist or criteria


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

Organize

data

using

concrete objects, pictures, tallies, tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs

Selected

Extended Written

Selected Extended Written

Performance Personal

Performance

Personal Communication

Extended Written

Performance


Activity

Activity

  • Individually:

    • On your right hand side of the chart of your target/method planning sheet, list the methods that would be the best matches for the targets you have identified.


Purposes of assessments2

assessment for learning

diagnostic (given before instruction to gather information on where to start)

formative (monitors student progress during instruction)

assessment of learning

summative (the final task at the end of a unit, a course, or a semester)

Purposes of Assessments

Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17, 2004)


Methods of assessment1

Methods of Assessment

  • Selected response

  • Extended written response

  • Performance assessment

  • Personal communication

AUTHENTIC


Authentic academic achievement

Authentic Academic Achievement

  • Construction of Knowledgeproducing meaning from prior experiences

  • Disciplined Inquirycognitive work for in-depth understanding

  • Value Beyond Schoolmeaning apart from documenting competence

Newmann, Secada, and Wehlage, “A Guide to Authentic Instruction and Assessment”, 1995


Seven standards for assessment tasks

Seven Standards forAssessment Tasks

  • Organization of Information

  • Consideration of Alternatives

  • Disciplinary Content

  • Disciplinary Process

  • Elaborated Written Communication

  • Problem Connected to the World Beyond School

  • Audience Beyond the School

Newmann, Secada, and Wehlage, “A Guide to Authentic Instruction and Assessment”, 1995


Examples of assessment tasks

Examples of Assessment Tasks

  • Students will design a poster showing the history of a major city of a U.S. region.

  • Students will conduct a lab experiment on states of water, recording observations of freezing and thawing points.

  • Students will tell about three different events in their week, identifying correctly when each occurs.

  • Students will collect data on the number and type of forest animals and create an graphic representation of the populations.

  • Students will make a PowerPoint presentation to a younger audienceabout a tribe of Michigan Native Americans.

  • Students will write a persuasive essay about a position on a current monetary or fiscal policy that addresses unemployment.


Components of an authentic assessment task

Components of an Authentic Assessment Task

  • What “new” prompt will you use to trigger “old” learning from prior instruction?

    • A prompt is the stimulus material given to students at the time of assessment which activates prior knowledge relevant to the task.

    • While carrying out the assessment task, the student uses the prompt to produce discourse, a performance, or a tangible object.

    • A prompt could be presented through various media, e.g., print, auditory, or visual.

    • Prompts might also take various forms, e.g., reading, graphic, motion picture, recording, map, data set, etc.


Example of prompt

Example of Prompt

Letter from an Immigrant

Dear Marta,

I hope you received my letter telling you that I am now an American

citizen. We have an election for mayor in my city in one month. I will be

able to vote for the first time in my life. I have learned as much as I can

about the two candidates for mayor. I think that Bonnie Kalinowski is

clearly my choice.

I wanted to learn more about American history to I am going to night

school. I go two nights a week after work.

I must stop for now. I have homework for my class! I will write again

soon.

Sincerely,

Jacob


Components of an authentic assessment task1

Components of an Authentic Assessment Task

  • What directions will you give to the students completing the task?

    • The students being assessed are the audience for these directions.

    • These directions should be included just as they would be given to students at the time they are directed to perform the assessment task.

    • They should include a very clear statement of the product students are expected to generate as a result of performing the assessment task as well as the criteria that will be used to gauge the quality of student work, i.e., the scoring rubric.


Example of directions

Example of Directions

  • “We have been learning about how important the right to vote is. Jacob as a new American citizen is certainly excited about gaining this right. He needs help, however, finding ways to take a more active part in the election. Write Jacob a letter explaining why you think it is important for him to become involved in the election campaign. Then, describe three different ways he could help Ms. Kalinowski become mayor. Make sure to explain your suggestions clearly.”


Components of an authentic assessment task2

Components of an Authentic Assessment Task

  • What procedures will you use as the teacher administering the task?

    • The steps to be followed by the teacher in conducting the assessment should be listed, and each step should be briefly elaborated.

    • These procedures should be written so that another teacher, new to the assessment task, could carry them out.


Example of procedures

Example of Procedures

  • Read aloud the prompt with students. Ask the students if there are any questions regarding the reading. Then, go over the directions for the assessment task and the rubric. Finally, provide time for the students to complete the extended response individually.


Components of an authentic assessment task3

Components of an Authentic Assessment Task

  • What scoring rubric will you use to evaluate the quality of the students’ task?

    • The assessment task should provide for individual student accountability.

    • The scores are cumulative; each higher score entails the criteria of the lower scores. Each higher score requires that something be added to the quality of student work not required for the next lower score.

    • The criteria for each score should specify “how good is good enough” for that score to be assigned.


A rubric is

A rubric is…

a set of scoring guidelines/criteria that describes a range of possible student responses for a particular assessment task.

Adapted from Arter and McTighe (2001).

Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom.; Nolet

And McLaughlin (2000). Accessing the

General Curriculum.


A rubric contains

A rubric contains…

  • a scale that indicates the points that will be assigned to a student’s work (different levels of proficiency); and

  • a set of meaningful descriptors for each point on that scale. (Descriptors establish the continuum of competence along which a learner moves towards proficiency.)

    Rubrics are frequently accompanied by examples of products or performances illustrating the different score points for proficiency (anchor papers).


Why use a rubric

Why use a rubric?

  • Communicate appropriate standards and expectations for students (“what will count”)

  • Provide feedback to students and parents

  • Guide and focus instruction

  • Promote student self-assessment and goal setting

  • Improve grading consistency

    --judgments become more objective, consistent, and accurate

Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis, Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Assessment Training Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 200.


Features of high quality rubrics

Features of High-Quality Rubrics

  • Content—What counts?

    • “Look fors” (essential traits), quality over quantity

  • Clarity—Does everyone understand what is meant?

  • Practicality—Is it easy to use by teachers and students?

  • Technical quality/fairness—Is it reliable and valid?

Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis, Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Assessment Training Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 201 and 203


Holistic or analytical rubrics

Holistic Rubric:

Gives a single score or rating for the entire product or performance based on an overall impression of a student’s work.

Used with summative assessments and standardized tests.

Analytical Rubric:

Divides a product or performance into essential traits or dimensions (“Look Fors”) so they can be judged separately. Provides a profile of strengths and weaknesses.

Used with formative assessments

Holistic or Analytical Rubrics?


Example of rubric

Example of Rubric

0 = the criteria for a score of 1 have not been met.


Example of rubric1

Example of Rubric

0 = the criteria for a score of 1 have not been met.


Activity1

Activity

  • Individually:

    • Begin planning the assessments for the outcomes that you have unpacked for your unit

      • summative, authentic assessment tasks

      • formative assessment tasks


Unpacking the expectations for classroom assessment and instruction

POP

  • Purpose

    • Analyzing the new GLCEs and HSCEs for good classroom assessment and instruction, leading to increased student achievement

  • Objectives

    • Differentiate between the purposes of assessment

    • Unpack expectations into targets

    • Match targets to methods of assessment

    • Develop a set of assessments for your classroom

  • Procedure

    • PowerPoint slides for presenting information

    • Practice with the expectations

    • Use of templates and protocols


Questions

Questions?

Stan Masters

Coordinator of Curriculum, Assessment,

and School Improvement

Lenawee Intermediate School District

4107 North Adrian Highway

Adrian, Michigan 49921

517-265-1606 (phone)

517-265-2953 (fax)

[email protected]

http://www.lisd.us/curriculum/


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