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HIS 534.04 History of Argentina PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HIS 534.04 History of Argentina. Introduction Settlement of the La Plata Region Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata The Bourbon Reforms and their impact on Argentina. Settlement of the La Plata Region. Conquest of South America Contributions of Argentina

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HIS 534.04 History of Argentina

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His 534 04 history of argentina l.jpg

HIS 534.04 History of Argentina

  • Introduction

  • Settlement of the La Plata Region

  • Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata

  • The Bourbon Reforms and their impact on Argentina


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Settlement of the La Plata Region

Conquest of South America

Contributions of Argentina

Early history of the Spanish Conquest

Argentina’s place in the Spanish Empire


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Conquest of South America

  • Reinforced rivalry between Spain and Portugal

  • Brought Catholicism to the region

  • Presented challenge to non-Iberian European nations

  • Introduced new commodities to region and in return exported new commodities to world economy


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Christopher Columbus


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Treaty of Tordesillas


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Contributions of Argentina

  • Until the 19th century, Argentina involved mostly in IA, B

  • After the 19th century, Argentina mostly involved in ID


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Early history of the Spanish Conquest

  • Started in the Caribbean with Columbus’ 1492 landing in Salvador (present day Dominican Republic); 1519, Cortés in Mexico; 1530, Pizarro and Almagro in Peru

  • Basic goals: missionary activities; silver (mines in Potosí and Mexico)

  • Development of imperial authorities: civil, legal, religious and private

  • Impact of the Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494


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Argentina’s place in the Spanish Empire

  • Far from the sources of imperial authority

    • Civil = Viceroys, governors, and alcaldes

    • Legal = Audiencia

    • Religious = Bishoprics

    • Private = Encomenderos


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Argentina’s place (continued…)

  • Imperial authority began in Central America and spread southward

    • 1538 – the creation of the Audiencia of Panama

      • Jurisdiction stretched from Nicaragua to Tierra del Fuego

    • 1542 – two (2) new Audiencias created: Guatemala and Perú

      • Argentina under Perú’s jurisdiction

    • 1559 – Audiencia of Charcas (Bolivia)

    • 1662 – Audiencias of Buenos Aires, Asunción and Tucumán created

    • 1776 – creation of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata


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Argentina’s place (continued…)

  • Discovery of Argentina

    • Brazil discovered in 1500

      • 1502, Río de la Plata sighted

    • 1516, Juan de Solís discovered Buenos Aires and died shortly thereafter

    • 1527, Sebastian Cabot reached Paraguay and Córdoba by river


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Argentina’s place (continued…)

  • Settlement of Río de la Plata done in three directions

    • Founding of the port city on Río de la Plata

      • Included Paraguay

    • Settlements founded by Chileans

    • Trade and immigration from Perú

    • Argentina settled from INSIDE to COAST


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Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata

  • Formation of Urban Areas

    • Created towns based upon Iberian traditions

      • Towns planned in block traditions with main plaza, government house (cabildo) and elite shops and residences

      • Social status derived from being named a head of household (vecino)

        • Awarded by municipal government

    • Majority of African, both freed and enslaved, found in urban, not rural areas

    • Towns linked to countryside

      • Most vecinos were encomenderos (persons who were granted rights to Indian labor)


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Slave Trade Routes


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Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata (continued…)

Formation of Urban Areas (continued…)

  • Towns linked to countryside

    • Most encomenderos lived in Northwest and Cuyo

      • Mendoza had 30 encomenderos with 2,500 Indians

      • San Juan – 23 with 1,500

      • Santiago del Estero – 48 with 18,000

      • San Miguel de Tucumán with 3,000 plus others

    • In 1586 there were 46,000 Indians in encomiendas

    • By 1674, there were less than 13,000; 9,000 of whom were in the Northwest

      • Other forms of labor imposed in mining areas


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Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata (continued…)

  • Rural Areas

    • In Río de la Plata, rural areas usually threatened by conflicts between Indigenous and Europeans or Mestizos

      • Creation of strings of forts

      • Evolution of official policies towards indigenous people

    • Reliant upon herds of feral horses and cattle, but also engaged in agriculture

    • Formation of both estancias (cattle ranches) and smaller agricultural and livestock ranches

      • Affected by gender


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Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata (continued…)

  • Formation of the Gaucho – myth and reality

    • Definition – all men on the pampas or just the unemployed?

    • Where did the gauchos come from? Did they have a life cycle?

    • What did they do?

    • How did they live?


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Social Life in Colonial Río de la Plata (continued…)

  • Impact of formation of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata

    • More urban jobs, especially in imperial bureaucracy

    • More need for literacy and other educational skills

    • Greater economic mobility

      • Increase in the number of slaves, especially as status symbols

    • Greater social distance among inhabitants


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Bourbon Reforms

  • European background to the Bourbon Reforms

  • Economic philosophy

  • Impact on Argentina


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European background to the Bourbon Reforms

  • 1700 death of Charles II, last Hapsburg king

    • Led to War of Spanish Succession

      • Why did Europe want to fight an indebted Empire?

  • Winner of the War, Philip V of Anjou

    • Had to renounce the French throne in order to become King of Spain

  • Began an era of reform known as Bourbon reforms

    • Started first in Spain and then were continued in Spanish America


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Economic philosophy

  • Remove barriers to production: high taxes, monopolies, local and ecclesiastical privileges, and end the sale of offices

  • Philip’s successor, Charles III, spread these reforms to Spanish America

    • 1764 – periodic mail service to Havana

    • Elimination of Seville monopoly on New World trade

    • Began to lower taxes on goods sent to Spanish America

      • By 1772 taxes mostly eliminated

    • 1767 Spain expels the Jesuits

    • 1774 Perú, New Spain, Guatemala and Nueva Grenada allowed to trade among themselves


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Impact on Argentina

  • Opening of trade

    • 1776 Buenos Aires allowed to trade legally with Upper Perú (Bolivia)

    • 1778 Buenos Aires allowed to trade directly with Spain and its allies

  • Political Changes

    • 1776 Buenos Aires declared seat of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata

      • Included the mines of Bolivia, Cuyo region, Paraguay and the Banda Oriental (Uruguay)

      • Dry customs eliminated

      • 1794 Chamber of Commerce created


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The harbor of Buenos Aires, 18th century


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Landing in Buenos Aires


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Plaza de Mayo


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Pulpería


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Slaughtering Cattle


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The Docks, early 20th c.


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A Gaucho


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18th Century Pilar Basilica


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San Telmo Pharmacy


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La Boca Street-Buenos Aires


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A Buenos Aires Mansion


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A Buenos Aires Shanty


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Gath y Chaves Department Store


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Impact on Argentina (continued…)

  • Political changes (continued…)

    • 1782 Intendancy system created

      • Expanded native born participation in municipal councils (Cabildos)

      • Encouraged repairs, road building, et cetera

      • Headed by intendants who challenged who challenged the authority of the Viceroy


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Impact on Argentina (continued…)

  • Why did the King create these new reforms for the Río de la Plata?

    • Expansion of Portugal to the mouth of the Río de la Plata (Colonia)

    • Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777 left Uruguay in the hands of Portugal

    • Buenos Aires needed to be protected militarily – not only against Indians, but also against Portugal

    • Jesuits opposed treaties that placed their missions under the control of the Portuguese

      • Jesuits expelled and the missions turned over to Franciscans

    • Spain acknowledged Buenos Aires’ importance as a port


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