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Solutions. Solution. A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance. Components of a solution. Two parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent). Aqueous solution.

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Solutions l.jpg


Solution l.jpg


  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance

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Components of a solution

  • Two parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent)

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Aqueous solution

  • Solutions in which the solvent is water are aqueous solutions (most common)

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  • A solution in which the solvent is alcohol is a tincture Ex: iodine tincture

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Characteristics of a solution

  • Mixture of two or more substances

  • light passes through it

  • particles are uniformly distributed

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Ions and dissociation

  • Ions are atoms with a positive or negative charge

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  • Solutions that conduct electricity are electrolytes (sodium chloride and silver nitrate)

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  • Non-electrolytes form solutions that do not conduct electricity (sugar, alcohol, benzene)

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  • What is a solution?

  • What are the two parts of a solution?

  • What are three properties of a solution?

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  • What’s the difference between an aqueous solution and a tincture

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  • If you wanted to dissolve a substance in water as quickly as possible what could you do?

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Ways to increase dissolving rate

  • In order to increase the rate in which a solution dissolves one could heat the solution, stir it, or crush the solute particles

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  • The measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a solvent is solubility

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What affects solubility?

  • The three main factors that affect solubility are temperature, type and the amount of the solvent

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Effervescence (fizz)

  • The escape of a gas from a liquid is effervescence (example: soda and alka seltzer)

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  • Concentration of a solution is the amount of solute that isdissolved in a solvent

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Concentrated vs. dilute

  • A solution with a lot of solute dissolved is concentrated

  • A solution with a little solute dissolved is dilute

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Types of solutions

  • A saturated solution contains all the solute it can possibly hold

  • An unsaturated solution contains less solute that is possible

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Supersaturated solution

  • A supersaturated solution can be made to hold more solute than is normal

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  • Compare a saturated, unsaturated, and a supersaturated solution

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  • What is solubility and what are the three factors that affect it?

  • What are three ways to increase the rate in which a solute dissolves?

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  • Water is the universal solvent

  • A substance that cannot dissolve in water is insoluble

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Polar vs. non-polar

  • A polar molecule has oppositely charged ends (+ and -)

  • Non-polar molecules have the same charges on its ends

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Rule for dissolving solutes in a solvent

  • Like solutes dissolve in like solvents (polar in polar, non-polar in non-polar)

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Hard water vs. soft water

  • Hard water contains dissolved metal ions

  • Soft water does not contain dissolved metal ions

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Freezing point depression

  • Lowering the freezing point of a solution as a result of the dissolved solute (freezing point depression) Ex: antifreeze in water

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Boiling point elevation

  • Raising the boiling point of a substance by adding solute (salt in water)

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  • What is the difference between polar and non-polar molecules?

  • What is the general rule for dissolving solutes?

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  • What is the difference between hard and soft water?

  • How does a solute affect the freezing point and the boiling point?

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  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles are large enough to be seen (solute is suspended)

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  • A colloid is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution (does not separate, solute remains suspended)

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  • Properties of an acid: sour taste, affecting the color of indicators, turn litmus paper from blue to red, pH 1-6.9

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Weak acids vs. strong acids

  • Weak acids (pH 4 - 6.9)

  • Strong acids (pH about 1-3; common acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and acetic acids

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  • Bases are slippery, bitter taste, turn litmus paper from red to blue

  • pH 7.1-14

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  • Common bases potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide

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Weak bases vs. strong bases

  • Weak bases (7.1-10.9 pH)

  • Strong bases (11-14 pH)

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pH scale

  • Measures hydronium ion concentration (strength of the acid or base)

  • pH scale ranges from 0-14 (7 is the neutral point) water

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  • Salt is a compound formed when an acid is mixed with a base (positive ion from a base and a negative ion from an acid)

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  • A neutralization reaction occurs when an acid and a base combine to form salt and water

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  • A precipitate is an insoluble substance crystallizes out of solution (ex: salt from a neutralization reaction)

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Precipitation reaction

  • The process of forming a precipitate is precipitation

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  • What is the pH scale used for?

  • What is the pH range for an acid, a base?

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  • What are some properties of an acid? Of a base?

  • Describe neutraliztion.

  • What is a salt?

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