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Solutions. Solution. A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance. Components of a solution. Two parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent). Aqueous solution.

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solution
Solution
  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance
components of a solution
Components of a solution
  • Two parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent)
aqueous solution
Aqueous solution
  • Solutions in which the solvent is water are aqueous solutions (most common)
tinctures
Tinctures
  • A solution in which the solvent is alcohol is a tincture Ex: iodine tincture
characteristics of a solution
Characteristics of a solution
  • Mixture of two or more substances
  • light passes through it
  • particles are uniformly distributed
ions and dissociation
Ions and dissociation
  • Ions are atoms with a positive or negative charge
electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Solutions that conduct electricity are electrolytes (sodium chloride and silver nitrate)
non electrolytes
Non-electrolytes
  • Non-electrolytes form solutions that do not conduct electricity (sugar, alcohol, benzene)
questions
Questions
  • What is a solution?
  • What are the two parts of a solution?
  • What are three properties of a solution?
questions11
Questions
  • What’s the difference between an aqueous solution and a tincture
question
Question
  • If you wanted to dissolve a substance in water as quickly as possible what could you do?
ways to increase dissolving rate
Ways to increase dissolving rate
  • In order to increase the rate in which a solution dissolves one could heat the solution, stir it, or crush the solute particles
solubility
Solubility
  • The measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a solvent is solubility
what affects solubility
What affects solubility?
  • The three main factors that affect solubility are temperature, type and the amount of the solvent
effervescence fizz
Effervescence (fizz)
  • The escape of a gas from a liquid is effervescence (example: soda and alka seltzer)
concentration
Concentration
  • Concentration of a solution is the amount of solute that isdissolved in a solvent
concentrated vs dilute
Concentrated vs. dilute
  • A solution with a lot of solute dissolved is concentrated
  • A solution with a little solute dissolved is dilute
types of solutions
Types of solutions
  • A saturated solution contains all the solute it can possibly hold
  • An unsaturated solution contains less solute that is possible
supersaturated solution
Supersaturated solution
  • A supersaturated solution can be made to hold more solute than is normal
question21
Question
  • Compare a saturated, unsaturated, and a supersaturated solution
questions22
Questions
  • What is solubility and what are the three factors that affect it?
  • What are three ways to increase the rate in which a solute dissolves?
water
Water
  • Water is the universal solvent
  • A substance that cannot dissolve in water is insoluble
polar vs non polar
Polar vs. non-polar
  • A polar molecule has oppositely charged ends (+ and -)
  • Non-polar molecules have the same charges on its ends
rule for dissolving solutes in a solvent
Rule for dissolving solutes in a solvent
  • Like solutes dissolve in like solvents (polar in polar, non-polar in non-polar)
hard water vs soft water
Hard water vs. soft water
  • Hard water contains dissolved metal ions
  • Soft water does not contain dissolved metal ions
freezing point depression
Freezing point depression
  • Lowering the freezing point of a solution as a result of the dissolved solute (freezing point depression) Ex: antifreeze in water
boiling point elevation
Boiling point elevation
  • Raising the boiling point of a substance by adding solute (salt in water)
questions29
Questions
  • What is the difference between polar and non-polar molecules?
  • What is the general rule for dissolving solutes?
questions30
Questions
  • What is the difference between hard and soft water?
  • How does a solute affect the freezing point and the boiling point?
suspension
Suspension
  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles are large enough to be seen (solute is suspended)
colloid
Colloid
  • A colloid is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution (does not separate, solute remains suspended)
acids
Acids
  • Properties of an acid: sour taste, affecting the color of indicators, turn litmus paper from blue to red, pH 1-6.9
weak acids vs strong acids
Weak acids vs. strong acids
  • Weak acids (pH 4 - 6.9)
  • Strong acids (pH about 1-3; common acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and acetic acids
bases
Bases
  • Bases are slippery, bitter taste, turn litmus paper from red to blue
  • pH 7.1-14
bases36
Bases
  • Common bases potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide
weak bases vs strong bases
Weak bases vs. strong bases
  • Weak bases (7.1-10.9 pH)
  • Strong bases (11-14 pH)
ph scale
pH scale
  • Measures hydronium ion concentration (strength of the acid or base)
  • pH scale ranges from 0-14 (7 is the neutral point) water
slide39
Salt
  • Salt is a compound formed when an acid is mixed with a base (positive ion from a base and a negative ion from an acid)
neutralization
Neutralization
  • A neutralization reaction occurs when an acid and a base combine to form salt and water
precipitate
Precipitate
  • A precipitate is an insoluble substance crystallizes out of solution (ex: salt from a neutralization reaction)
precipitation reaction
Precipitation reaction
  • The process of forming a precipitate is precipitation
questions43
Questions
  • What is the pH scale used for?
  • What is the pH range for an acid, a base?
questions44
Questions
  • What are some properties of an acid? Of a base?
  • Describe neutraliztion.
  • What is a salt?
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