The Catholic Reformation. Reforms, 1500-1545 Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600. The Counter-Reformation?. External or Internal Pressure? Concern for reformation had been within the church for along time. Most Europeans remained Catholic: Most humanists Most universities Most peasants
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the church as a direct result of the abuses of
the church and the immorality of its priests.
Moral, devout—a product of the “Brethren of
Common Life” (from which John Calvin and Erasmus both emerged).
Convened a panel of respected experts to evaluate the health of the church. The panel reported many abuses (nepotism, simony, pluralism, absenteeism, mismanagement of wealth and immorality). The panel increased discipline rather than pursuing institutional reform.
Appointed the best men as Cardinals, respected for knowledge, and product of Renaissance learning/training.
The first and chief article is this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification (Romans 3:24-25). He alone is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world (John 1:29), and God has laid on Him the iniquity of us all (Isaiah 53:6). All have sinned and are justified freely, without their own works and merits, by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, in His blood (Romans 3:23-25). This is necessary to believe. This cannot be otherwise acquired or grasped by any work, law, or merit. Therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us...Nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and earth and everything else falls (Mark 13:31)
Queen Catherine de Medici King Charles IX (1560-1574)
Coligny Henry, Duke of Guise Charles IX (1560-1574)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Charles IX (1560-1574)
King Henry IV Margaret of Valois
King Christian IV of Denmark Albert of Wallenstein
Gustav II Adolphus of Sweden Count Tilly
Battle of Lutzen Count Tilly
Map of Thirty Years’ War Count Tilly
Europe After Westphalia Count Tilly
Scripture and Tradition Count Tilly
Opposition to filioque
Synergistic Free Will
The Role of Works
Defense of Filioque
Justification by Faith Alone
Orthodoxy sees human nature as fallen and mortal, but as retaining its fundamental orientation toward God and not as inheriting some type of juridical guilt; we are redeemed from this fallen human nature by the incarnation of the Son of God, who assumes and shares this fallen, mortal nature in every aspect except sin, even unto death, restoring it to its former potentiality (i.e., “justifying” us) through his resurrection, in which we share. But restoration to the potentiality of Adam and Eve is just a starting point in Orthodox theology; we are called to communion with God, to grow and mature into the likeness of God, to become “deified” by participation in God’s own life through the Holy Spirit.
Augustinianism sees human nature as fallen and mortal, having lost its fundamental orientation toward God and inheriting some type of juridical guilt; we are forgiven of the original guilt of this fallen human nature by baptism through the atonement of Christ. Justification by faith is the juridical gift of divine righteousness—the imputation of Christ’s righteousness. By sanctification humanity is restored to the former status of Adam and Eve in creation as they communed with God. We are restored to the perfection in which God created us as we are fully restored into the image of God through the sanctifying work of the Spirit.