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Post-Cold War USAF Operations PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Post-Cold War USAF Operations. Overview. Background / Lessons Learned Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/ NORTHERN WATCH Operation SOUTHERN WATCH Operations PROVIDE RELIEF / RESTORE HOPE Operation DENY FLIGHT. The Crisis in Iraq.

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Post-Cold War USAF Operations

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Post-Cold WarUSAF Operations


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Overview

  • Background / Lessons Learned

    • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/ NORTHERN WATCH

    • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH

    • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF / RESTORE HOPE

    • Operation DENY FLIGHT


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The Crisis in Iraq

  • UN Security Council established a “no-fly zone” over northern Iraq to protect the Kurdish people from attacks by Saddam Hussein

  • Operation PROVIDE COMFORT began on

    5 Apr 91 as a humanitarian relief effort to deliver food, clothing, and supplies to Iraq’s Kurdish refugees

  • C-130s began airdropping supplies on 7 Apr 91

  • Lasted approximately eight years and was then replaced by Operation NORTHERN WATCH


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The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - ONW

  • The need to avoid “Fratricide”

  • The limitations of airdrops

  • Host-country tensions

  • The need for alternate bases

  • Lack of an “exit strategy”


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The Crisis in Iraq

  • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH (OSW) is a Combined Task Force enforcing the “no-fly zone” below the 33th parallel in southern Iraq

  • Not an aggression against Iraq – executed as a self-defense measure

  • Coalition partners include the US, UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

  • More than 850 Iraqi SAM and AAA fire directed at coalition aircraft

  • Iraq has violated the “no-fly zone” more than 160 times

  • More than 150,000 USAF sorties by 1998


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“What we’ve effectively done since 1992 is conduct an air occupation of a country…”

Gen Fogleman, Jul 1995


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The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - OSW

  • Became a test for USAF AEF concept in Oct 1995

  • Quality of life changes needed due to high “Ops-Tempo”

  • Reorganized Security Forces


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The Crisis in Somalia

  • In-mid 1992, drought and civil war devastated Somalia

  • Food supplies became a weapon of war

  • Operation PROVIDE RELIEF began on

    22 Aug 1992 by the US to deliver food to Somali refugees

  • Military and civilian aircraft used

  • Over 2,000 sorties, carrying 48,162 metric tons of food


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The Crisis in Somalia

  • Although a humanitarian effort:

    • 44 American soldiers lost their lives

    • 175 were injured or wounded

  • Danger of failure due to warlord interference

  • Operation RESTORE HOPE

    • Coalition peacekeeping operation from 9 Dec 92 –

      4 May 93

    • First test of Rapid Global Mobility from the CONUS


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The Crisis in SomaliaLessons Learned

  • First large scale test of newly formed AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC)

  • Difficulties evolved in the planning, coordinating and managing of the operation

  • Austere infrastructure of Somalia added to the lack of adequate bases for strategic airlift aircraft


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The Crisis in Bosnia

  • Oct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781, established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.

  • Operation Deny Flight

    • Enforced the no-fly zone

    • Provided close air support to UN troops

    • Conducted approved air strikes under a "dual-key" command arrangement with the UN

  • 28 Feb 94, NATO aircraft shot down four warplanes violating the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina

    • This was the first military engagement ever undertaken by the Alliance.


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The Crisis in Bosnia

  • NATO objectives

    • Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on Sarajevo and other safe areas

    • Withdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from the total exclusion zone around Sarajevo

    • Complete freedom of movement for U.N. Forces and personnel, and non-government officials

    • Unrestricted use of Sarajevo airport


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The Crisis in Bosnia

  • NATO missions of Operation DENY FLIGHT

    • To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 816

    • To provide close air support to UN troops on the ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN forces.

    • To conduct approved air strikes against designated targets threatening the security of the UN-declared safe areas.


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The Crisis in Bosnia

  • Operation DENY FLIGHT lasted from 12 Apr 1993 to 20 Dec 1995

    • Almost 100,000 sorties flown

  • A formal closure ceremony was held in Vicenza, Italy on 21 Dec 1995

    • Forces associated with Operation DENY FLIGHT were then transferred to Operation DECISIVE ENDEAVOR -- as part of the overall NATO Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR.


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The Crisis in BosniaLessons Learned

  • Lack of doctrine

  • Tactical air and space power problems

  • Bases weren’t large enough to accept the contingency surges

  • Coalition/Joint problems

  • Technological problems


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Summary

  • Iraq

    • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT /

      NORTHERN WATCH

    • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH

  • Somalia

    • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPE

  • Bosnia

    • Operation DENY FLIGHT


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Don’t repeat the past!AIRPOWER!!!!!


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