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Post-Cold War USAF Operations. Overview. Background / Lessons Learned Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/ NORTHERN WATCH Operation SOUTHERN WATCH Operations PROVIDE RELIEF / RESTORE HOPE Operation DENY FLIGHT. The Crisis in Iraq.

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overview
Overview
  • Background / Lessons Learned
    • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/ NORTHERN WATCH
    • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH
    • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF / RESTORE HOPE
    • Operation DENY FLIGHT
the crisis in iraq
The Crisis in Iraq
  • UN Security Council established a “no-fly zone” over northern Iraq to protect the Kurdish people from attacks by Saddam Hussein
  • Operation PROVIDE COMFORT began on

5 Apr 91 as a humanitarian relief effort to deliver food, clothing, and supplies to Iraq’s Kurdish refugees

  • C-130s began airdropping supplies on 7 Apr 91
  • Lasted approximately eight years and was then replaced by Operation NORTHERN WATCH
the crisis in iraq lessons learned onw
The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - ONW
  • The need to avoid “Fratricide”
  • The limitations of airdrops
  • Host-country tensions
  • The need for alternate bases
  • Lack of an “exit strategy”
the crisis in iraq1
The Crisis in Iraq
  • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH (OSW) is a Combined Task Force enforcing the “no-fly zone” below the 33th parallel in southern Iraq
  • Not an aggression against Iraq – executed as a self-defense measure
  • Coalition partners include the US, UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait
  • More than 850 Iraqi SAM and AAA fire directed at coalition aircraft
  • Iraq has violated the “no-fly zone” more than 160 times
  • More than 150,000 USAF sorties by 1998
what we ve effectively done since 1992 is conduct an air occupation of a country

“What we’ve effectively done since 1992 is conduct an air occupation of a country…”

Gen Fogleman, Jul 1995

the crisis in iraq lessons learned osw
The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - OSW
  • Became a test for USAF AEF concept in Oct 1995
  • Quality of life changes needed due to high “Ops-Tempo”
  • Reorganized Security Forces
the crisis in somalia
The Crisis in Somalia
  • In-mid 1992, drought and civil war devastated Somalia
  • Food supplies became a weapon of war
  • Operation PROVIDE RELIEF began on

22 Aug 1992 by the US to deliver food to Somali refugees

  • Military and civilian aircraft used
  • Over 2,000 sorties, carrying 48,162 metric tons of food
the crisis in somalia1
The Crisis in Somalia
  • Although a humanitarian effort:
    • 44 American soldiers lost their lives
    • 175 were injured or wounded
  • Danger of failure due to warlord interference
  • Operation RESTORE HOPE
    • Coalition peacekeeping operation from 9 Dec 92 –

4 May 93

    • First test of Rapid Global Mobility from the CONUS
the crisis in somalia lessons learned
The Crisis in SomaliaLessons Learned
  • First large scale test of newly formed AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC)
  • Difficulties evolved in the planning, coordinating and managing of the operation
  • Austere infrastructure of Somalia added to the lack of adequate bases for strategic airlift aircraft
the crisis in bosnia
The Crisis in Bosnia
  • Oct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781, established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • Operation Deny Flight
    • Enforced the no-fly zone
    • Provided close air support to UN troops
    • Conducted approved air strikes under a "dual-key" command arrangement with the UN
  • 28 Feb 94, NATO aircraft shot down four warplanes violating the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina
    • This was the first military engagement ever undertaken by the Alliance.
the crisis in bosnia1
The Crisis in Bosnia
  • NATO objectives
    • Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on Sarajevo and other safe areas
    • Withdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from the total exclusion zone around Sarajevo
    • Complete freedom of movement for U.N. Forces and personnel, and non-government officials
    • Unrestricted use of Sarajevo airport
the crisis in bosnia2
The Crisis in Bosnia
  • NATO missions of Operation DENY FLIGHT
    • To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 816
    • To provide close air support to UN troops on the ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN forces.
    • To conduct approved air strikes against designated targets threatening the security of the UN-declared safe areas.
the crisis in bosnia3
The Crisis in Bosnia
  • Operation DENY FLIGHT lasted from 12 Apr 1993 to 20 Dec 1995
    • Almost 100,000 sorties flown
  • A formal closure ceremony was held in Vicenza, Italy on 21 Dec 1995
    • Forces associated with Operation DENY FLIGHT were then transferred to Operation DECISIVE ENDEAVOR -- as part of the overall NATO Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR.
the crisis in bosnia lessons learned
The Crisis in BosniaLessons Learned
  • Lack of doctrine
  • Tactical air and space power problems
  • Bases weren’t large enough to accept the contingency surges
  • Coalition/Joint problems
  • Technological problems
summary
Summary
  • Iraq
    • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT /

NORTHERN WATCH

    • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH
  • Somalia
    • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPE
  • Bosnia
    • Operation DENY FLIGHT
ad