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Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology Purpose Understand the fundamental networking concepts Agenda Network Concepts Communication Protocol TCP/IP-OSI Architecture Network Types LAN WAN Public Switched Data Network Virtual Private Network Network Comparison Internet

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Data Communication

And

Internet Technology

purpose
Purpose
  • Understand the fundamental networking concepts
agenda
Agenda
  • Network Concepts
  • Communication Protocol
  • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture
  • Network Types
    • LAN
    • WAN
    • Public Switched Data Network
    • Virtual Private Network
  • Network Comparison
  • Internet
  • Domain Name System
  • IP Addressing Schemes
  • Security
  • Discussion and Case Study
network concepts
Network Concepts
  • A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines
  • Types
    • Local area networks (LANs): connects computers in a single geographic location
    • Wide area networks (WANs): connects computers at different geographic sites
    • Internet: a network of networks
communication protocol
Communication Protocol
  • Protocol: a standard means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities
  • Communications protocol: a means for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers
    • The communication protocol is broken into levels of layers
    • Two machines must agree upon and follow the protocol for exchanging the message
tcp ip iso architecture i
TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - I
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  • TCP/IP-ISO architecture: five layers
tcp ip iso architecture ii
TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - II
  • Layer 5 (Application): communication rules between two applications
    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for email
    • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for processing Web page (sites and users)
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for copying file between computers
tcp ip iso architecture iii
TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - III
  • Layer 4 (Transport): communication rules between two host computers
    • Transmission Control Program (TCP)
    • Sending functions: break data into segments, add To and From address, and
    • Receiving functions: provide reliability by sending acknowledgement, and translate the format, assemble segments into data
tcp ip iso architecture iv
TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - IV
  • Layer 3 (Internet): communication rules of routing packets across the Internet
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • Functions: package each segment into a packet, place IP data in in the packet, add To/From data
tcp ip iso architecture v
TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - V
  • Layer 2 (Data Link): communication rule for transmitting data within a single network
    • Functions: package packets into frames
  • Layer 1 (Physical): communication rule between adjacent device connected by a transmission medium
terminology
Terminology
  • Architecture: an arrangement of protocol layers with their associated tasks
  • Protocol: set of rule to accomplish the tasks
  • Program: software implementing the protocol
  • Web: sub set of Internet with users and sites to process protocol
  • Internet: communication structure
  • Browser: a program implementing the HTTP of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture (Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer)
network types
Network Types
  • LAN: local area network
  • WAN: wide area network
lan i
LAN - I
  • A group of computers connected together on a single company site and operated by the company
  • Equipments
    • Network interface card (NIC) or onboard NIC: an unique identifier named MAC (media access control) address
    • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 connecter
    • Optical fiber cable with ST and SC connectors
lan ii
LAN - II
  • IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • Protocol: IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet
    • Hardware characteristics (which wire carries which signals)
    • Package and process message over LAN
    • Operate on Layer 1 and 2
  • 10/100/1000 Ethernet (Mbps)
  • Bits for communications speeds and bytes for memory sizes
lan iii
LAN - III
  • Wireless LAN
    • Wireless NIC (WNIC)
    • IEEE 802.11g protocol to connect to an access point (AP) and IEEE 802.3
slide23
WAN
  • Connects computers located at physically separated sites
  • Internet service provider (ISP)
    • Provide customer a legitimate Internet address.
    • Serve as the gateway to the Internet
    • Communicate between sending computer and Internet
  • Connecting computer and ISP
    • Telephone line
    • DSL (digital subscriber line)
    • Cable TV line
wan equipment
WAN - Equipment
  • Modem
    • Convert data between digital and analog
    • Narrowband with speed less than 56 kbps and Broadband with speed over 256 kbps
  • Modem types
    • Dial-Up modem
      • Narrowband
      • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
    • DSL modem
      • Permanent connection and one more line for telephone conversation
      • Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) for home and small business with slow upload speed with 256 kbps and faster download speed ranging from 256 to 768 kbps
      • Symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) for advanced users and larger business with 1.544 Mbps performance level guarantees
    • Cable modem
      • Permanent connection and one more line for TV
      • 10 Mbps download speed and 256 kbps upload speed
wan equipment27
WAN - Equipment
  • Access devices
    • Switch (Layer 2)
    • Router (Layer 3)
  • Lease lines from telecommunication company
    • T1 line with 1.544 Mbps speed
    • T3 line with 44.763 Mbps speed
    • Optical fiber cable-768 with 40 Gbps
    • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
wan public switched data network
WAN – Public Switched Data Network
  • Public switched data network (PSDN)
  • Developed and maintained by a vendor for selling time to other company
  • Shown as a cloud in the map or diagram
  • User must have a leased line connecting to PSDN as point of presence (POP)
  • PSDN types
    • Frame Relay with 56 kbps to 40 Mbps: slower and cost less but simple and easy to support
    • Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) with 1 to 156 Mbps: faster and cost more but transmitting data and voice
    • Ethernet with 10 to 40 Gpbs
wan virtual private network
WAN – Virtual Private Network
  • Virtual private network (VPN): a private internet as a private point-to-point connection
  • Tunnel: a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server
  • Encrypted message
  • Remote access
network comparison
Network Comparison
  • Setup costs
    • Equipment: lines, switches, routers, and access devices
    • Labor
  • Operational costs
    • Lease fees for line and equipment
    • ISP charges
    • Training
    • Maintenance: problem diagnosis, repair, and updating
  • Performance
    • Speed: line and equipment
    • Latency: transmission delay due to congestion
    • Availability: service outages
    • Loss rate: transmission problem
    • Transparency
    • Performance guarantee: availability, error rate, speed, etc.
  • Growth potential
  • Contract commitment period
  • Management time
  • Financial risk
  • Technical risk
internet
Internet
  • Network address
    • Physical or MAC address in Layer 2 program: permanent and unique
    • Logical or IP address in Layers 3, 4, and 5: not permanent, such as 192.168.2.28
    • Public IP address used on the Internet to major institutions in blocks assigned by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    • Private IP address used within private networks and internets
  • DHCP server has Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet
  • Network Address Translation (NAT): The process of changing public IP addresses into private IP addresses, and the reverse
domain name system
Domain Name System
  • Convert user-friendly name into their IP address
  • domain name: any registered, valid name with ICANN
  • resolving the domain name: the process of changing a name into its IP address
    • ICANN has 13 computer as root servers for maintaining a list of IP addresses of servers to resolve each type of TLD in the world
  • Top-level domain (TLD)
    • Non-U.S. is the two letter abbreviation for the country
    • U.S. is the type of organization
  • Uniform resource locator (URL): document’s address on the Web
  • Domain name resolvers store the correspondence of domain names and IP address
ip addressing schemes
IP Addressing Schemes
  • IPv4 and
  • IPv4
    • 32 bits divided into four groups of 8 bits, and a decimal number represents each group
    • 63.224.57.59
    • The largest decimal number between the period is 255 (0 – 255)
  • IPv6
    • 128 bits due to the growth of the Internet
    • Currently both IPv4 and IPv6 are used on the Internet
security
Security
  • Encryption algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES
  • Key
    • Symmetric encryption
    • Asymmetric encryption: public key and private key
  • HTTPS
    • Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS)
    • Public key, private key and symmetric encryption
summary
Summary
  • TCP/IP-OSI five layers
    • Application layer
    • Transport layer
    • Internet layer
    • Data link layer
    • Physical layer
  • Public switched data network (PSDN)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet
  • Domain name
discussion
Discussion
  • Problem solving (121a-b)
    • What are the new opportunities for the business generated by the Internet?
    • What are the new threats for the business generated by the Internet?
  • Opposing forces (129a-b)
    • State your opinions related to the negative impact on the society when everyone is connect through the Internet.
  • Security (133a-b)
    • State the impacts on the society and business from the government having an decryption method to decode everything over the Internet.
  • Ethics (141a-b)
    • State the impacts from the employee’s private usage of company’s computer facility.
  • Reflections (143a-b)
    • How should you react properly from not getting lost from this Internet age?
case study
Case Study
  • Case 5-1 (148-149) Network Services: questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10
points to remember
Points to Remember
  • Network Concepts
  • Communication Protocol
  • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture
  • Network Types
    • LAN
    • WAN
    • Public Switched Data Network
    • Virtual Private Network
  • Network Comparison
  • Internet
  • Domain Name System
  • IP Addressing Schemes
  • Security
  • Discussion and Case Study
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