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Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology Purpose Understand the fundamental networking concepts Agenda Network Concepts Communication Protocol TCP/IP-OSI Architecture Network Types LAN WAN Public Switched Data Network Virtual Private Network Network Comparison Internet

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Chapter 5 l.jpg

Chapter 5

Data Communication


Internet Technology

Purpose l.jpg

  • Understand the fundamental networking concepts

Agenda l.jpg

  • Network Concepts

  • Communication Protocol

  • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture

  • Network Types

    • LAN

    • WAN

    • Public Switched Data Network

    • Virtual Private Network

  • Network Comparison

  • Internet

  • Domain Name System

  • IP Addressing Schemes

  • Security

  • Discussion and Case Study

Network concepts l.jpg
Network Concepts

  • A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines

  • Types

    • Local area networks (LANs): connects computers in a single geographic location

    • Wide area networks (WANs): connects computers at different geographic sites

    • Internet: a network of networks

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Communication Protocol

  • Protocol: a standard means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities

  • Communications protocol: a means for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers

    • The communication protocol is broken into levels of layers

    • Two machines must agree upon and follow the protocol for exchanging the message

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TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - I

  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

  • TCP/IP-ISO architecture: five layers

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TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - II

  • Layer 5 (Application): communication rules between two applications

    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for email

    • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for processing Web page (sites and users)

    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for copying file between computers

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TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - III

  • Layer 4 (Transport): communication rules between two host computers

    • Transmission Control Program (TCP)

    • Sending functions: break data into segments, add To and From address, and

    • Receiving functions: provide reliability by sending acknowledgement, and translate the format, assemble segments into data

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TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - IV

  • Layer 3 (Internet): communication rules of routing packets across the Internet

    • Internet Protocol (IP)

    • Functions: package each segment into a packet, place IP data in in the packet, add To/From data

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TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - V

  • Layer 2 (Data Link): communication rule for transmitting data within a single network

    • Functions: package packets into frames

  • Layer 1 (Physical): communication rule between adjacent device connected by a transmission medium

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  • Architecture: an arrangement of protocol layers with their associated tasks

  • Protocol: set of rule to accomplish the tasks

  • Program: software implementing the protocol

  • Web: sub set of Internet with users and sites to process protocol

  • Internet: communication structure

  • Browser: a program implementing the HTTP of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture (Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer)

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Network Types

  • LAN: local area network

  • WAN: wide area network

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  • A group of computers connected together on a single company site and operated by the company

  • Equipments

    • Network interface card (NIC) or onboard NIC: an unique identifier named MAC (media access control) address

    • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 connecter

    • Optical fiber cable with ST and SC connectors

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  • IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

  • Protocol: IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet

    • Hardware characteristics (which wire carries which signals)

    • Package and process message over LAN

    • Operate on Layer 1 and 2

  • 10/100/1000 Ethernet (Mbps)

  • Bits for communications speeds and bytes for memory sizes

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  • Wireless LAN

    • Wireless NIC (WNIC)

    • IEEE 802.11g protocol to connect to an access point (AP) and IEEE 802.3

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  • Connects computers located at physically separated sites

  • Internet service provider (ISP)

    • Provide customer a legitimate Internet address.

    • Serve as the gateway to the Internet

    • Communicate between sending computer and Internet

  • Connecting computer and ISP

    • Telephone line

    • DSL (digital subscriber line)

    • Cable TV line

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WAN - Equipment

  • Modem

    • Convert data between digital and analog

    • Narrowband with speed less than 56 kbps and Broadband with speed over 256 kbps

  • Modem types

    • Dial-Up modem

      • Narrowband

      • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

    • DSL modem

      • Permanent connection and one more line for telephone conversation

      • Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) for home and small business with slow upload speed with 256 kbps and faster download speed ranging from 256 to 768 kbps

      • Symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) for advanced users and larger business with 1.544 Mbps performance level guarantees

    • Cable modem

      • Permanent connection and one more line for TV

      • 10 Mbps download speed and 256 kbps upload speed

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WAN - Equipment

  • Access devices

    • Switch (Layer 2)

    • Router (Layer 3)

  • Lease lines from telecommunication company

    • T1 line with 1.544 Mbps speed

    • T3 line with 44.763 Mbps speed

    • Optical fiber cable-768 with 40 Gbps

    • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

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WAN – Public Switched Data Network

  • Public switched data network (PSDN)

  • Developed and maintained by a vendor for selling time to other company

  • Shown as a cloud in the map or diagram

  • User must have a leased line connecting to PSDN as point of presence (POP)

  • PSDN types

    • Frame Relay with 56 kbps to 40 Mbps: slower and cost less but simple and easy to support

    • Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) with 1 to 156 Mbps: faster and cost more but transmitting data and voice

    • Ethernet with 10 to 40 Gpbs

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WAN – Virtual Private Network

  • Virtual private network (VPN): a private internet as a private point-to-point connection

  • Tunnel: a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server

  • Encrypted message

  • Remote access

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Network Comparison

  • Setup costs

    • Equipment: lines, switches, routers, and access devices

    • Labor

  • Operational costs

    • Lease fees for line and equipment

    • ISP charges

    • Training

    • Maintenance: problem diagnosis, repair, and updating

  • Performance

    • Speed: line and equipment

    • Latency: transmission delay due to congestion

    • Availability: service outages

    • Loss rate: transmission problem

    • Transparency

    • Performance guarantee: availability, error rate, speed, etc.

  • Growth potential

  • Contract commitment period

  • Management time

  • Financial risk

  • Technical risk

Internet l.jpg

  • Network address

    • Physical or MAC address in Layer 2 program: permanent and unique

    • Logical or IP address in Layers 3, 4, and 5: not permanent, such as

    • Public IP address used on the Internet to major institutions in blocks assigned by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

    • Private IP address used within private networks and internets

  • DHCP server has Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet

  • Network Address Translation (NAT): The process of changing public IP addresses into private IP addresses, and the reverse

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Domain Name System

  • Convert user-friendly name into their IP address

  • domain name: any registered, valid name with ICANN

  • resolving the domain name: the process of changing a name into its IP address

    • ICANN has 13 computer as root servers for maintaining a list of IP addresses of servers to resolve each type of TLD in the world

  • Top-level domain (TLD)

    • Non-U.S. is the two letter abbreviation for the country

    • U.S. is the type of organization

  • Uniform resource locator (URL): document’s address on the Web

  • Domain name resolvers store the correspondence of domain names and IP address

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IP Addressing Schemes

  • IPv4 and

  • IPv4

    • 32 bits divided into four groups of 8 bits, and a decimal number represents each group


    • The largest decimal number between the period is 255 (0 – 255)

  • IPv6

    • 128 bits due to the growth of the Internet

    • Currently both IPv4 and IPv6 are used on the Internet

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  • Encryption algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES

  • Key

    • Symmetric encryption

    • Asymmetric encryption: public key and private key


    • Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS)

    • Public key, private key and symmetric encryption

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  • TCP/IP-OSI five layers

    • Application layer

    • Transport layer

    • Internet layer

    • Data link layer

    • Physical layer

  • Public switched data network (PSDN)

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet

  • Domain name

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  • Problem solving (121a-b)

    • What are the new opportunities for the business generated by the Internet?

    • What are the new threats for the business generated by the Internet?

  • Opposing forces (129a-b)

    • State your opinions related to the negative impact on the society when everyone is connect through the Internet.

  • Security (133a-b)

    • State the impacts on the society and business from the government having an decryption method to decode everything over the Internet.

  • Ethics (141a-b)

    • State the impacts from the employee’s private usage of company’s computer facility.

  • Reflections (143a-b)

    • How should you react properly from not getting lost from this Internet age?

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Case Study

  • Case 5-1 (148-149) Network Services: questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10

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Points to Remember

  • Network Concepts

  • Communication Protocol

  • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture

  • Network Types

    • LAN

    • WAN

    • Public Switched Data Network

    • Virtual Private Network

  • Network Comparison

  • Internet

  • Domain Name System

  • IP Addressing Schemes

  • Security

  • Discussion and Case Study