Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes
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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:. Lessons learned about the importance and effectiveness of adopting and following modern building codes Tim Reinhold Institute for Business & Home Safety. Design Standards for Manufactured Housing. Pre- 1976 No standards, lots of singlewides

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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes l.jpg

Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:

Lessons learned about the importance and effectiveness of adopting and following modern building codes

Tim Reinhold

Institute for Business & Home Safety


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Design Standards for Manufactured Housing

  • Pre- 1976

    • No standards, lots of singlewides

    • Generally very poor performance

  • 1976-1994

    • HUD Code, more doublewides

    • Two design levels – not tied to modern wind std.

    • Better performance but lots of damage

  • Post 1994

    • Wind zones 1-3

    • ASCE 7-88 loads and wind map

    • Clearly superior performance






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Windborne Debris

Primary Sources:

  • Roofing Materials

  • Siding Materials

  • Vegetative Debris

  • Structural Components

  • Unsecured Items (Patio Furniture, Potted Plants, lawn ornaments, etc.)




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Punta Gorda City Hall & Annex

  • Mitigation Success

    • Annex in use

    • City Hall gutted


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Aggregate Losses for Charlotte County and Punta Gorda

  • All Building Permits: $1.8 Billion

  • Residential Garage Doors: $2.6 Million

  • Shingle Roofs: $114 Million

  • Tile Roofs: $87 Million

  • Residential Cages: $16 Million



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Roof Covering Failures - Tile

Tile Roof Damage

  • Tile insufficiently attached to roof deck:


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Continuing Problems: Garage Door Failures

  • Failed primarily due to lack of reinforcement and track bracing for design pressures

  • Some were also damaged by windborne debris


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Continuing Problems: Double Entry Doors


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Continuing Problems: Gable Ends

  • Gable End Failures

    • Sheathing loss

    • Un-braced gables



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Conclusions

  • Buildings built under the latest codes where enforcement was good – generally performed well structurally (some exceptions)

  • Keys are:

    • Good up to date code

    • Uniform and thorough enforcement

    • Builders and subs who understand and appreciate the risks

    • Special inspections for key functions


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Benefit-Cost Studies for Building Codes

  • Texas A&M Study for TDI Code

    • For individual provisions large variability

    • For system of provisions B-C ~ 4 to 7

  • Seismic Code Study for Utah and LA

    • B-C of 4.3 for Utah

    • B-C of 6 to 16 for LA


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Recommendations

  • Appropriate funds for National Windstorm Loss Reduction Program authorized last year

  • Increase support for NOAA / FEMA in wind field modeling

  • Increase support for NOAA in hardening and backing up ASOS stations

  • Add incentives for code adoption and enforcement

  • Add incentives for mitigation


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