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Mitigation of primary PM emissions Overview of existing technical and non-technical emissions mitigation techniques. M. Amann, J. Cofala, Z. Klimont International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Projected PM emissions in Europe 2000-2020. EU-15. EU-10. Non-EU.

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Mitigation of primary PM emissionsOverview of existing technical and non-technical emissions mitigation techniques

M. Amann, J. Cofala, Z. Klimont

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)


Projected pm emissions in europe 2000 2020 l.jpg
Projected PM emissions in Europe2000-2020

EU-15

EU-10

Non-EU


Contribution to primary pm2 5 emissions with climate measures scenario eu 15 kt l.jpg
Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissions “With climate measures” scenario, EU-15 [kt]


Main technical emission control options for pm 850 options considered in rains l.jpg
Main technical emission control options for PM850 options considered in RAINS




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Scope for non-technical measures

  • Local traffic restrictions

    • For PM2.5, need to reduce overall emissions, not only divert them

    • Consumer’s behavior difficult to model (with RAINS)

  • Accelerated phase-out of solid fuels in home heating

    • E.g., removal of subsidies for local coal heating, or EU structural funds for replacement of heating systems

  • General reduction of carbonaceous fuel consumption through a carbon tax

    • CAFE analysis: illustrative scenario with 90 €/t CO2 carbon price (compared to 20 €/t CO2 in baseline)


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Scope for non-technical measures for PM2.5Effect of a 90 €/to CO2 carbon tax, according to PRIMES calculations

With maximum technically reductions

With current legislation


Sectoral emissions of pm2 5 cafe calculations eu 15 l.jpg
Sectoral emissions of PM2.5CAFE calculations, EU-15


Sectoral emissions of pm2 5 cafe calculations eu 10 l.jpg
Sectoral emissions of PM2.5CAFE calculations, EU-10


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Sectoral emissions of PM2.5RAINS estimates, Non-EU countries


Sectoral shares in pm2 5 emission reductions cafe scenarios for eu 25 2020 l.jpg
Sectoral shares in PM2.5 emission reductionsCAFE scenarios for EU-25, 2020


Further cost effective measures to reduce pm emissions in the cafe scenarios for the eu 25 1 l.jpg
Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (1)

Domestic sector (32% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Dedusters (cyclones, fabric filters) on larger boilers in the commercial sector

  • Accelerated introduction of new boilers in the residential sector (mainly for biomass)

  • For the scenarios with higher ambition levels: non-catalytic inserts for fireplaces and stoves

    Transport (26% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Additional measures for light duty diesel vehicles

  • Additional measures for heavy duty diesel vehicles

  • Low sulphur fuels for national sea traffic and national fishing, which also reduces the PM emissions


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Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (2)

Industrial processes (22% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters to control stack emissions

  • Good practice to control fugitive emissions (for all countries and all ambition levels)

    Waste (19% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Good practice

  • Ban on open burning of agricultural and household waste


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Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (3)

Power plants (10% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters for all existing and new boilers using solid fuels

  • Good housekeeping measures for oil boilers

    Industrial combustion (2% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters for all countries and all ambition levels

  • Good housekeeping measures on oil boilers

    Conversion sector (1% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters (electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters) for process sources in refineries and coking plants

  • Good housekeeping for oil fired furnaces


Potential for further measures in non eu countries l.jpg

SNAP 10: Agriculture the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (3)

SNAP 9: Waste treatment and disposal

SNAP 8: Other mobile sources and machinery

+ non-technical measures!

SNAP 7: Road transport

SNAP 5: Extraction and distribution

SNAP 4: Production processes

SNAP 3: Combustion in manufacturing industry

SNAP 2: Non-industrial combustion plants

SNAP 1: Combustion in energy industries

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

kilotons PM2.5

MTFR

Room for further improvement beyond CLE

Current legislation 2000-2020

Potential for further measures in Non-EU countries


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Conclusions the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (3)

  • A wide range of technical and non-technical measures to control primary PM2.5 emissions from all sectors is available

  • Many of them are already applied (or will be applied due to existing legislation), especially in the EU

  • Many of the “current legislation” measures of the EU are not yet considered in the EECCA countries, especially for industrial process emissions

  • Further reductions of primary PM emissions are cost-effective means for improving ambient PM2.5, also in the EU-25

  • Large scope for non-technical measures to reduce PM emissions from small sources (solid fuel combustion), especially in EECCA countries


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More information: the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (3)www.iiasa.ac.at/rains


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