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Infrared Thermal Camera-Based Real-Time Identification and Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways. Debao Zhou Department of MIE, UMD June 6, 2014. Objective.

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Infrared Thermal Camera-Based Real-Time Identification and Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Debao Zhou

Department of MIE, UMD

June 6, 2014


Objective Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • To build a system on roadside to automatically detect the presence of large animals, such as deer, and track their motions for the safe driving on roadways

  • This system can also be installed on cars


The Problem – Where Are Animals Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Animals off road

Cars at low/high speed

Heated objects

Animals off road

Animals on road

Heated objects


The problem road conditions
The Problem – Road Conditions Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Tree and/or grass,

  • Straight or curved

  • Hill or ditch

Road

Road

Road

Tree

Case 3

Tree

Tree

Tree

Road

Grass

Grass

Hills

or ditches

Case 2

Case 1

Case 4


Thermal camera capability
Thermal Camera Capability Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Temperature sensitivity: up to 14 mK

  • Optical resolution up to 640 by 480 TV Lines

  • Activity detection of adult human size objects up to 8 Km with motorized focal length adjustment

  • Active IR thermal camera and passive IR thermal camera


Example
Example: Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Thermal-Eye 3620AS camera core:

    • FOV 17

    • Range to detect human activity: 1000ft (305m)

    • Real-time 30fps

    • -20°C to 85°C

    • $3500


Technical approach
Technical Approach Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Through the processing of infrared thermal images to detect and track big animals

    • Speed method will be used to distinguish big animals from their environment and high speed cars

    • Pattern matching method will be used to identify big animals from low speed cars

    • Centroid method will be used to track the motion of big animals

  • A mechatronic system with two degrees of freedom will be developed to realize the scanning and tracking by making the camera point to a specific animal


Advantages
Advantages Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Advantages

    • Automatic detection and tracking

    • All-time – day and night

    • Coverage area much bigger than break-the-beam method

  • Usage:

    • On-vehicle

    • Roadside for infrastructure


Accomplishments to date
Accomplishments To Date Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Infrared thermal images have been acquired and analyzed. The results shows that these images can be used to identify the presence of big animals and cars.

  • Pattern matching method has been applied to identify the presence of cars and deer. The algorithm is capable to tell the object is a deer or a car.

  • Tracking has been realized using two degrees of freedom system.

  • A prototype has been built and the scanning and tracking have been realized.


System prototype
System Prototype Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Camera and image grabbing

  • Stepper motors

  • Enclosure: Contain power supply and motion controller

  • Computer


Identification and tracking realization
Identification and Tracking Realization Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Three main phases:

    • Image acquisition

    • Image processing

    • Motion control

Image acquisition

Image processing

Image center

+

Pixel to step adjustment

Motion control

Motion generation

Position measurement


Motion control and realization
Motion Control and Realization Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Motion realization


Object identification and tracking
Object Identification and Tracking Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Through Centroid and its changing locations:


Pattern matching car and big animals
Pattern Matching: Car and Big-animals Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Original Patterns

  • Original Images


Object identification
Object Identification Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Processed Images

  • Matched pattern


Object identification and tracking in light
Object Identification and Tracking in Light Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

In light

Three cameras are used:

#1: Thermal camera to take the thermal image and put on computer screen

#2: Normal digital camera to take video of the whole scenario (video on left)

#3: Normal digital camera to take video of the computer screen (video on right)


Object Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On RoadwaysIdentification and Tracking in Dark

In dark, no lights

Three cameras are used:

#1: Thermal camera to take the thermal image and put on computer screen

#2: Normal digital camera to take video of the whole scenario (video on left)

#3: Normal digital camera to take video of the computer screen (video on right)


Proposed System Setup Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Two IR cameras

Animals off road

Cars at low/high speed

Heated objects

Animals off road

Animals on road

Heated objects


Proposed study
Proposed Study Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Speed measurement:

    • 3D distance measurement and distance change with time

    • Off-road big-animal identification from stand-still objects

    • On-road high-speed vehicles identification

  • Development of pattern matching algorithms

    • On-road low speed vehicles identification - tell cars from any big animals when car moves in slow speed

  • Multiple objects tracking

  • Building robust system: electrical, mechanical, suitable for roadside application, low-high temperature, etc.


Thanks! Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways


Review on vehicle roadside
Review: On-vehicle / Roadside Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • The Driver

  • Whistles

  • TH-HID Lighting System

  • Forward-collision Sensors

  • Ultrasonic Sensors

  • Radar

  • Camera

  • Auto-identification of humans

    in the environment,

Natural habitat prevention

Roadside vegetation control

Electronic mats

Population reduction

Fencing

Deer guards and crosswalks

Underpasses and overpasses

Roadside reflectors

Animal reflectors

Flash light sensing

IR LASER


Animal Detection System Installed Worldwide: Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Area-cover systems and Break-the-beam systems


IR System and Warning Signs in Netherlands Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways


System in Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On RoadwaysCalville, WA, USA – Break-the-beam System

  • 20 June 2000

  • Hwy 395 north of Spokane, south of Colville

  • Two lasers, one placed on each side of the road

  • Two standard deer warning signs, two smaller rectangular signs that read “When Flashing”, and two solar powered red flashing beacons

  • Lasers operated on batteries

  • Problems:

    • Clear line-of-sight in the right-of-way

    • Heat in the box


FLASH System in Nugget Canyon WY USA, IR Sensor (17m-19m) Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Signs were placed 300 m (327 yd) before the crossing area

  • Sing read:

  • Flashing Light Animal Sensing Host (FLASH)

  • Series of infrared sensors placed at 17-19 m (18.5-20.7 yd) intervals, HW 30; spanned 92m

  • Body heat of large animals


System in Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On RoadwaysYellowstone National Park, Montana USA (Break-the-beam)

  • Oct./Nov. 2002;

  • Along a 1,609 m (1 mi) long road section of US Hwy 191

  • Transmitter: microwave RF signal (35.5 GHz) to its intended Receiver

  • Once actived, master station then sends the beacon-on command to the nearest beacons


System in Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On RoadwaysYellowstone National Park, Montana USA (Break-the-beam)


  • Cannot detect the distance/speed of a moving object Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

  • Cannot distinguish moving animals from moving cars

  • Cannot distinguish sun-heated objects from big-animals

  • Cannot be able to tell that a fast running animal will enter the road.

  • Intrusion detection rate is not acceptable

    • Camrix A.L.E.R.T and Xtralis ADPRO


  • Infrared cameras for monitoring animal activity
    Infrared Cameras for Monitoring Animal Activity Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

    Thermacam B1; FLIR (forward-looking infrared) Systems Inc; Boston, Massachusetts

    Trailmaster 1500 Active Infrared Trail Monitors; By Goodson and Associates, Inc.; Lenexa, Kansas

    FLIR Nightsight Palm IR 250 Digital Camera; Raytheon, Waltham, MA

    TM-2500 Trailmonitor; Grypon Engineering, Inc.; Richmond, Michigan

    Su320ktx-1.7rt; Goodrich Corporation; Princeton, New Jersey

    Hunting Electronics / Military Usage


    Capability of Infrared Cameras Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

    • Distance, from up to 8 Km for the identification of adult human size objects

    • Temperature: -40F to 100F

    • Resolution: 0.1F


    Component integration
    Component Integration Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways


    Object identification1
    Object Identification Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

    • Original image

    • Processed image


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