Emissions and fuel economy of vehicles and engines in the real world and on the road
Download
1 / 31

Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 587 Views
  • Uploaded on

Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road. Leo Breton Mechanical Engineer. Computer-Controlled Vehicles/Engines. All New On-Road Vehicles Growing Non-Road Presence Offer Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Emissions

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road' - LeeJohn


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Emissions and fuel economy of vehicles and engines in the real world and on the road l.jpg
Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road

Leo Breton

Mechanical Engineer


Computer controlled vehicles engines l.jpg
Computer-Controlled Vehicles/Engines Real World and On the Road

  • All New On-Road Vehicles

  • Growing Non-Road Presence

  • Offer Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Emissions

  • But Often Perform Differently in Real World Compared With Laboratory

    • Certification Process Used for Establishing Performance

    • Lab Testing Limitations

    • Engine Calibration Process

    • Manufacturers Seeking Competitive Advantage


Slide3 l.jpg

  • All New Vehicles and Engines Must Meet Numerical Emissions Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Fuel Economy and Emissions Levels Determined for a Vehicle/Engine Through Manufacturer-Run Certification Testing With Limitations:

    • Prototype Vehicle/Engine

    • Calibrated to Test Method

    • Certification Test Fuel

    • Professional Driver/Computer

    • Tightly Controlled Drive Cycle

    • Laboratory Dynamometer Testing

    • Simplified Loading Curve

    • Tightly Controlled Ambient Conditions

    • Simulated Sensor Inputs for Heavy-Duty


Lab testing methods chassis dynamometer l.jpg
Lab Testing Methods Standards and Must Not Have Defeat DevicesChassis Dynamometer


Slide5 l.jpg

Chassis Dynamometer Cycles Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide6 l.jpg

Chassis Dynamometer Cycles Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Lab testing methods engine dynamometer l.jpg
Lab Testing Methods Standards and Must Not Have Defeat DevicesEngine Dynamometer


Slide8 l.jpg

Engine Dynamometer Cycle Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide9 l.jpg

Prohibition of Defeat Devices Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • “No new gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck shall be equipped with a defeatdevice.”

  • “Defeat Device means an auxiliary emission control device (AECD) that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use, unless:”

  • Conditions are also substantially included in federal test procedures

  • Need is justified to protect vehicle against damage or accident

  • Needed for engine starting


Slide10 l.jpg

Manufacturer Fueling Calibration Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide11 l.jpg

Manufacturer Fueling Calibration Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Fueling Matrix a Function of: Lab Limitations

  • Ambient Temp 68-86 F

  • Coolant Temp Lab Temp, Cycle, Cooling

  • Manifold Pressure Lab Altitude, Cycle

  • Throttle Position Altitude, Cycle

  • Throttle Rate of Change Professional Driver

  • Vehicle Speed Cycle

  • Engine Speed Cycle

  • Engine Speed Change Cycle, Driver

  • A/C On/Off


Slide12 l.jpg

  • Measuring Emissions and Fuel Economy in Real World Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Traditional Equipment Massive / Power Intensive

  • Auto Industry Considered it Impossible

  • EPA Didn’t See Fit With Regulatory Framework

  • Nobody Knew What Was Being Missed

  • Nobody Thought About It

  • ROVER Developed to Demonstrate It Was Possible

  • ROVER Patent is Basis for Commercial Systems


Slide13 l.jpg

ROVER Light Duty Installation Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide14 l.jpg

ROVER HD Installation Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide15 l.jpg

ROVER HD Installation Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide16 l.jpg

What Has Been Found In Real World? Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Emissions Higher Than Expected

  • Fuel Economy Lower Than Expected For Passenger Cars Even On Same Cycle as Lab

  • Engines/Vehicles Often Behave Very Differently

    • Sensitivity to Driver Inputs

    • “Catalyst Protection”/Reduced FE Under High Loads

    • Enleanment to Boost Fuel Economy

    • Calibration Space Not on Appearing on Test

    • Small Engine “Catalyst Protection” at Normal Highway Speeds

    • Heavy-Duty Diesel Improved Fuel Economy on the Cheap

  • Fuel Economy Had Been Higher Than Expected for HDDE With Major Emissions “Hit”

  • Reduced Standards Were No Guaranty Of Reduced Emissions


Typical passenger vehicles real world traffic fuel effects l.jpg
Typical Passenger Vehicles Standards and Must Not Have Defeat DevicesReal-World Traffic, Fuel Effects


Slide18 l.jpg

Sensitivity to Throttle Movement Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Catalyst protection l.jpg
“Catalyst Protection” Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide20 l.jpg

HDG Enleanment Strategy to Boost FE Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide21 l.jpg

Enleanment Strategy Diagnosis Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide22 l.jpg

Enleanment Strategy Diagnosis Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Calibration not on test l.jpg

ROVER Test of XXXX - NOx at Idle Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

2000

2

1500

1

O2 (V), Spark Adv./10

NOx

NOx (ppm)

1000

0

O2 Sensor

Spark Adv.

500

-1

0

-2

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

time (s)

ROVER Test of LEV - NOx at Idle

50

4000

40

3000

30

2000

Spark Adv. (deg)

RPM

Spark Adv.

20

1000

RPM

10

0

0

-1000

-10

-2000

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

time (s)

Calibration Not On Test


Small engine enrichment hilly terrain l.jpg
Small Engine Enrichment Standards and Must Not Have Defeat DevicesHilly Terrain


Slide25 l.jpg

Small Engine Enrichment Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

Highway Speeds

3.7 g/mi


Slide26 l.jpg

Calibration Not On Test / Small Engine Protection Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

Fuel Economy Guide: 61/70

Hilly Terrain On-Road 59


Heavy duty nox standard experience l.jpg
Heavy Duty NOx Standard Experience Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide28 l.jpg

HDD Steady-State Fuel Economy Strategy Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

“On the Cheap”


Slide29 l.jpg

HDD Steady-State Fuel Economy Strategy Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide30 l.jpg

HDD Steady-State Fuel Economy Strategy Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices


Slide31 l.jpg

Conclusions and Comments Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Laboratory Testing Cycles Are Easily Defeated or Calibrated Around

  • Laboratory Data Has Not Been a Good Predictor of In-Use Performance

  • Laboratory Data Makes Bad Models and Leads to Bad Inventories

  • Regulations Do Not Work Without Effective In-Use Compliance Testing

  • In-use Fuel Economy is Significantly Lower Than Label Even With Similar Drive Cycle

  • AECDs (Deliberate Calibration Strategies) Can Be the Dominant Factor in Real-World Performance

  • Increasingly Sophisticated Fueling Strategies are Likely to Show Up Over Time

Will Real-World Fuel Economy Increase Proportionately to CAFE Figures?

Are CAFE Figures a Good Basis for Energy Analysis?

Don’t We Need a Good Understanding of Real-World Fuel Economy

To Become More Energy Independent?


ad