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Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road. Leo Breton Mechanical Engineer. Computer-Controlled Vehicles/Engines. All New On-Road Vehicles Growing Non-Road Presence Offer Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Emissions

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emissions and fuel economy of vehicles and engines in the real world and on the road
Emissions and Fuel Economy of Vehicles and Engines in the Real World and On the Road

Leo Breton

Mechanical Engineer

computer controlled vehicles engines
Computer-Controlled Vehicles/Engines
  • All New On-Road Vehicles
  • Growing Non-Road Presence
  • Offer Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Emissions
  • But Often Perform Differently in Real World Compared With Laboratory
    • Certification Process Used for Establishing Performance
    • Lab Testing Limitations
    • Engine Calibration Process
    • Manufacturers Seeking Competitive Advantage
slide3

All New Vehicles and Engines Must Meet Numerical Emissions Standards and Must Not Have Defeat Devices

  • Fuel Economy and Emissions Levels Determined for a Vehicle/Engine Through Manufacturer-Run Certification Testing With Limitations:
    • Prototype Vehicle/Engine
    • Calibrated to Test Method
    • Certification Test Fuel
    • Professional Driver/Computer
    • Tightly Controlled Drive Cycle
    • Laboratory Dynamometer Testing
    • Simplified Loading Curve
    • Tightly Controlled Ambient Conditions
    • Simulated Sensor Inputs for Heavy-Duty
slide9

Prohibition of Defeat Devices

  • “No new gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck shall be equipped with a defeatdevice.”
  • “Defeat Device means an auxiliary emission control device (AECD) that reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal vehicle operation and use, unless:”
  • Conditions are also substantially included in federal test procedures
  • Need is justified to protect vehicle against damage or accident
  • Needed for engine starting
slide11

Manufacturer Fueling Calibration

  • Fueling Matrix a Function of: Lab Limitations
  • Ambient Temp 68-86 F
  • Coolant Temp Lab Temp, Cycle, Cooling
  • Manifold Pressure Lab Altitude, Cycle
  • Throttle Position Altitude, Cycle
  • Throttle Rate of Change Professional Driver
  • Vehicle Speed Cycle
  • Engine Speed Cycle
  • Engine Speed Change Cycle, Driver
  • A/C On/Off
slide12

Measuring Emissions and Fuel Economy in Real World

  • Traditional Equipment Massive / Power Intensive
  • Auto Industry Considered it Impossible
  • EPA Didn’t See Fit With Regulatory Framework
  • Nobody Knew What Was Being Missed
  • Nobody Thought About It
  • ROVER Developed to Demonstrate It Was Possible
  • ROVER Patent is Basis for Commercial Systems
slide16

What Has Been Found In Real World?

  • Emissions Higher Than Expected
  • Fuel Economy Lower Than Expected For Passenger Cars Even On Same Cycle as Lab
  • Engines/Vehicles Often Behave Very Differently
    • Sensitivity to Driver Inputs
    • “Catalyst Protection”/Reduced FE Under High Loads
    • Enleanment to Boost Fuel Economy
    • Calibration Space Not on Appearing on Test
    • Small Engine “Catalyst Protection” at Normal Highway Speeds
    • Heavy-Duty Diesel Improved Fuel Economy on the Cheap
  • Fuel Economy Had Been Higher Than Expected for HDDE With Major Emissions “Hit”
  • Reduced Standards Were No Guaranty Of Reduced Emissions
calibration not on test

ROVER Test of XXXX - NOx at Idle

2000

2

1500

1

O2 (V), Spark Adv./10

NOx

NOx (ppm)

1000

0

O2 Sensor

Spark Adv.

500

-1

0

-2

0

100

200

300

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500

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900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

time (s)

ROVER Test of LEV - NOx at Idle

50

4000

40

3000

30

2000

Spark Adv. (deg)

RPM

Spark Adv.

20

1000

RPM

10

0

0

-1000

-10

-2000

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

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1300

1400

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time (s)

Calibration Not On Test
slide25

Small Engine Enrichment

Highway Speeds

3.7 g/mi

slide26

Calibration Not On Test / Small Engine Protection

Fuel Economy Guide: 61/70

Hilly Terrain On-Road 59

slide31

Conclusions and Comments

  • Laboratory Testing Cycles Are Easily Defeated or Calibrated Around
  • Laboratory Data Has Not Been a Good Predictor of In-Use Performance
  • Laboratory Data Makes Bad Models and Leads to Bad Inventories
  • Regulations Do Not Work Without Effective In-Use Compliance Testing
  • In-use Fuel Economy is Significantly Lower Than Label Even With Similar Drive Cycle
  • AECDs (Deliberate Calibration Strategies) Can Be the Dominant Factor in Real-World Performance
  • Increasingly Sophisticated Fueling Strategies are Likely to Show Up Over Time

Will Real-World Fuel Economy Increase Proportionately to CAFE Figures?

Are CAFE Figures a Good Basis for Energy Analysis?

Don’t We Need a Good Understanding of Real-World Fuel Economy

To Become More Energy Independent?

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