Engineering Design Process What is design and how is it done?
Many definitions of design… • Design is art • Design as problem solving • Design activity as applying scientific knowledge • Design is a social process in which individual object worlds interact, and design parameters are negotiated. Source: Dr. Robin Adams ENE 696G course notes
Crismond (2007) draws from many sources in his definition of design as “’goal-directedproblem-solving activity’ (Archer, 1965) that initiates change in human-made things(Jones, 1992), and involves optimizing parameters(Matchett, 1968) and the balancing of trade-offs(AAAS, 2001)to meet targeted users needs(Gregory, 1966).” Source: Crismond, D. (2007). Contrasting strategies of beginning and informed designers: One representation of learning progressions in engineering design.
Multiple Valid Solutions • Examples: • Cell phones and Computers
Design Process Six Phases • Problem Identification • Specification Development • Conceptual Design • Detailed Design • Production • Service/Maintenance • Redesign or retirement
Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production The Design Cycle Disposal
Human-Centered Design • Interactions with Stakeholders • Prototypes/communications at all stages
Problem Identification Specification Development Redesign Retirement Conceptual Design Detailed Design Service Maintenance Production Iterations in the Design Process Disposal
Test Test Generate Ideas Generate Ideas Implement Implement Define Measurable Specifications Define Measurable Specifications Iteration and Test Back to previous phase Go to next phase
Iteration and testing Prob ID Spec Dev Con Des Det Des Prod Main and serv. • Document • Why advanced • Why interated
Seeking and Selecting Diverge Seek Possibilities Problem Identification Converge Narrow Choices Diverge Seek Possibilities Specification Development Converge Narrow Choices Diverge Seek Possibilities Conceptual Design Converge Narrow Choices Each phase of the design process requires creative solutions and has a divergent component where ideas are sought and a convergent component where options are selected
Why is design difficult? • Engages different types of thinking • Requires designers to manage so many ideas and aspects • Addresses different types of problems
Good design… • Good designs involve diverse perspectives and expertise • IDEO – industry leader in design and innovation • Design thinking is a crucial business asset—one that can, indeed, move a company forward and improve the bottom line. To optimize this impact, (we) advise thoughtfully structuring the innovation process. They stress working on projects that improve people’s lives.. - Ryan Jacoby and Diego Rodriguez, Innovation, Growth, and Getting to Where You Want to Go, Design Management Review Vol. 18 No. 1