What is an Engineer? What you think engineering is and how engineering is done? Engineering: Engineers dream up creative practical solutions and work with other smart, inspiring people to invent, design, and build things that matter. They are changing the world all the time. -http://www.engineeryourlife.org -http://pbskids.org/designsquad/
Engineering Design Process A series of eight steps that engineers use to develop technological solutions to problems and advance society. • Identify the Need or Problem • Research the Need or Problem • Develop Possible Solution(s) • Select the Best Possible Solution(s) • Construct a Prototype • Test and Evaluate the Solution(s) • Communicate the Solution(s) • Redesign
Engineering Design Process Engineering Design Video
1. Identify the Need or the Problem • Often given to you… (in a lab, part of your job, etc…) OR • Possibly the most challenging step… why? • Important to clearly define the problem so you don’t waste time, money or resources
2. Research the Need or Problem COMPLETELY • Look into the current state of the need or problem and current solutions • Explore the issue using the internet, library, attend conferences and interviewing, etc. • Find out as much as possible before considering possible solutions • There might already be current solutions that you help you learn more
3. Develop Possible Solutions BRAINSTORM: A process in which group members freely suggest any creative solutions that come to mind. -Determine many different ways to address the problem or need (use math and science skills) -Brainstorm ways to make your original ideas even better -Engineers don’t just think of one idea and run with it, and often the first ideas don’t work out well.
Consider constraints • Any factor that limits or restricts a design. • Time, Money, Materials, etc. Making Trade-Offs • An exchange in which one benefit is given up in order to obtain another. • Example: Choosing a more expensive material that is more durable rather than saving money on a cheaper material.
It won’t be perfect at first In 1879, after finally creating a light bulb that burned bright and long -- a laborious effort that reportedly involved thousands of unsuccessful prototypes -- Thomas Alva Edison was asked how it felt to have failed so many times. He responded: “I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work.”
4. Select the best possible solution(s) Decide which ideas best meet the original need or best solve the original problem Remember, scientists Keep an Open Mind throughout the process!
Representing your Design 1. Sketch- a rough drawing 2. Orthographic Projection- a way to show a 3-D object in two dimensions 3. Multi-view drawings- show many aspects of a project. Example: may have drawings to show the inside of the object as well as outside. 4. Computer-aided Design: A computer software system used to create engineering plans, designs and technical drawings.
5. Construct a Prototype Prototype: A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments possible. -Model the selected solutions in two and three dimensions - It will help identify weaknesses in the design and it can be used to market the design. -Often, a smaller scale prototype may be designed first to save money and make it easier to redesign and make changes.
6. Test and Evaluate the Prototype • Does it work? In all intended ways? • Does it meet the original design constraints? IMPORTANT… What happens if your prototype fails to pass testing and evaluation??
7. Communicate the Solution • Present your solution to others. Discuss how your solution best meets the initial need or problem. • Discuss the societal impact and trade-offs of the solution. KEYPOINT: • Although Communicate the Solution is step 7, it is very, very, very, very important to continually communicate with others about solutions throughout the process. • Would it make sense to construct a prototype and spend all the time and money on it before talking to others?
8. Redesign • Rethink (and maybe rebuild) the solutions based on information gathered during the tests and communication. • Troubleshooting: The process of analyzing a design problem and finding a way to fix it.
Patents A legal document issued by a government that gives an inventor exclusive rights to make, use, or sell an invention for a limited time. • Inventions often bring fame or wealth to companies and inventors • Helps protect inventors so that others do not take their ideas and profit from them • Inventors can start a patent application while the design is in progress
Careers in STEM Here are the top top ten college majors with the highest median earnings per year: Petroleum engineering: $120,000 Pharmacy sciences and administration: $105,000 Mathematics and computer science: $98,000 Aerospace engineering: $87,000 Chemical engineering: $86,000 Electrical engineering: $85,000 Naval architecture and marine engineering: $82,000 Mechanical engineering: $80,000 Metallurgical engineering: $80,000 Mining and mineral engineering: $80,000