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Counterbalance in the Immersion Classroom. Dissemination of learning from CARLA 2012 Presenter: Roy Lyster, Ph.D. Department of Integrated Studies in Education, McGill University Montreal, QC. Teaching in a DLI classroom is like…. because…. Dr. Roy Lyster .

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Counterbalance in the Immersion Classroom


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    1. Counterbalance in the Immersion Classroom Dissemination of learning from CARLA 2012 Presenter: Roy Lyster, Ph.D. Department of Integrated Studies in Education, McGill University Montreal, QC Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    2. Teaching in a DLI classroom is like… • because… Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    3. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    4. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    5. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    6. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    7. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    8. Dr. Roy Lyster • Roy Lyster's research examines content-based second language instruction and the effects of instructional interventions—such as teacher scaffolding and corrective feedback—designed to counterbalance form-focused and content-based approaches. His research interests also include collaboration among language teachers for integrated language learning and biliteracy development. He was co-president then president of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics from 2004 to 2008 and serves on the Advisory Committee of Studies in Second Language Acquisition and The Canadian Modern Language Review and on the Editorial Board of The Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education. He is author of Learning and Teaching Languages Through Content: A Counterbalanced Approach, published by Benjamins in 2007. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    9. Main Topic: • To address the challenges inherent in teaching languages through content, this institute is designed to familiarize immersion teachers with a counterbalanced approach that integrates content-based and form-focused instruction as complementary ways of promoting continued second language growth in the immersion classroom. (Meeting the Challenges of Immersion Education: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom, CARLA, U. of Minnesota.) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    10. Explicit v. Implicit Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    11. Explicit v. Implicit (Deyser, 2003; Norris & Ortega, 2000; Schmidt, 1994) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    12. Possible shortcomings • Immersion education was initially based on the premise that: • Students learn language primarily through rich exposure to massive amount of comprehensible input via subject-matter instruction • therefore, language per se does not need to be taught • Yet student can bypass much of the grammar while still understanding the content • “We can understand discourse without precise syntactic and morphological knowledge” (Swain, 1988) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    13. Sponge Theory • Works when truly immersed in language and culture • School discourse cannot truly recreate this environment • Question…have you ever met a bilingual sponge? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    14. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    15. Teacher Talk • Tends to be too much • Tends to lack linguistic complexity and diversity • “Functionally restricted input” (Swain 1985, 1988) • Restricted in the range of forms and functions it contains Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    16. Example T: Europe didn’t have sugar cane. Why didn’t they have sugar cane? S: It’s too cold T: It’s too cold… S: The climate is not good. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    17. Restricted input • Verbs used by teachers: • 75% in the present/imperative • 15% in the past • 3% in the conditional Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    18. Immediate future in the past? • What do you think? How do you think these plantations… are going… to change…life in the Antilles? • These people are going to sell their sugar, rum, molasses, brown sugar. • They are going to make money. • With the money, they are going to buy clothes, furniture, horses, carriages…all they want and they are going to bring them back to the Antilles. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    19. So which one is it? • Immersion education must contain both • There must exist a counterbalance of explicit and implicit teaching and learning of language Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    20. Explicit teaching and learning • …asks learners to attend to language • …involves being aware of learning • …fits well with school-based educational objectives promoting: • Inductive learning experiences • Meta-cognitive strategies that lead students to become autonomous lifelong learners Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    21. Forms Language • Forms of a language deal with the internal grammatical structure of words. The relationship between boy and boys, for example, and the relationship (irregular) between man and men would be forms of a language. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    22. Functions of Language • A language function refers to the purpose for which speech or writing is being used. In speech these include: • giving instructions • introducing ourselves • making requests In academic writing we use a range of specific functions in order to communicate ideas clearly. These include: • describing processes • comparing or contrasting things or ideas, and • • classifying objects or ideas (Pozzi, D.C. 2004) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    23. Table Talk • In what ways are your students learning the forms and functions of the target language? • In what ways are you explicitly teaching the forms and functions of language in your daily instruction? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    24. Counterbalanced Instruction • Content Objectives • Language Objectives • Gives language and content objectives equal and complementary status • Integrates content instruction and form-focused instruction Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    25. 3 Key areas of curriculum • Instructional input • Student production • Classroom interaction Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    26. Form-focused Instruction draws learners’ attention to problematic L2 forms that are misused or avoided and often go unnoticed. • Not memorization of forms outside of context • Delivered during content-based or meaning-oriented tasks through two approaches: • Proactive approach: • Noticing, awareness, and practice activities • Reactive approach: • Corrective feedback Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    27. Selecting features to be taught(Harley, 1993) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    28. Noticing, Awareness, Practice • Receptive to Productive • Content provides context • Gradual Release • Promote accuracy Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    29. Noticing Activities • Designed to help students to notice L2 features contrived to appear more salient in oral and written input. • Enhanced written input • Color coding • Italics • Bold • CAPS • Enhanced oral input • Increased frequency • Intonational stress Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    30. Awareness activities • Students need to do more than just notice enhanced forms in the input • They need to engage in metalinguistic reflection or analysis: • Rule-discovery (inductive) tasks • Opportunities to compare language patterns, including L1-L2 contrasts • Metalinguistic information Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    31. Drawing attention to possessive determiners (White, 1998) Once upon a time, there was a king. He had a beautiful you daughter. For her birthday, he have her a golden ball that she played with every day. The king and his daughter lived near a dark forest. One day, the princess threw her golden ball in the air… The girl looked around, and she saw a frog. He was in the well, his head sticking out of the water… Who does the underlined word refer to? For her birthday, he had given her a golden ball. The princess lived with him near a dark forest. She played with her golden ball. She dropped her golden ball in the well. He was in the well, sticking his head out of the water. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    32. Practice Activity • As a group, brainstorm a couple of ideas for oral practice as an extension of the noticing and awareness activities. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    33. Grade-Alike Task • Identify a problematic linguistic feature or grammatical subsystem that is challenging for L2 learners. • To provide a meaningful context into which you will integrate a focus on your chosen language feature(s), select a topic or theme related to a subject-matter discipline. • Justify (if possible) how the language and content are connected. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    34. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    35. Classroom Interaction • Teacher-student interaction plays a pivotal role in promoting continued L2 growth as teachers scaffold the interaction with: • Effective questioning • Corrective feedback Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    36. Questions • Fewer questions eliciting facts (which tend to result in minimal responses) • More questions about students’ beliefs and opinions that require them to explain, define, or provide rationale Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    37. IRF Exchanges (Sinclair & Coulthard, 1975) • The most typical teaching exchange consist of a three-part sequence: • Teacher’s initiating (I) move “What’s the capital city of Spain?” • Student’s responding (R) move “Madrid?” • Teacher’s follow-up (F) move “That’s right!” Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    38. IRF Exchanges • From teacher to student T: How did you come to school today? S: I came by bus. T: Yes, that’s right! • Now imagine this: • S: How did YOU come to school today? • T: I came by car. • S: Yes, that’s right! Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    39. IRF Exchanges • Criticism: • Teacher-centered transmission model of teaching • Engages students only minimally and maintaining unequal power relationships between teachers and students • Still predominant because they help teachers to: • Monitor students’ understanding • Initiate discussion Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    40. Follow-up • Can be more important than initial question if they (Nassaji & Wells, 2000) : • Avoid judgment • Request justification or counter-arguments • Effective follow-up questions (Echevarria & Graves, 1998) : • What do you mean by that? • Why do you think that? • How do you know? • What makes you think that? • Tell me more about that. • Why might that be? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    41. Table Talk • How can Bloom’s Taxonomy serve as a resource for follow-up moves? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    42. Corrective Feedback (CF) • “responses to learner utterances containing an error” (Ellis 2006) • also a “complex phenomenon with several functions” (Chaudron, 1988) Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    43. Corrective Feedback • Research has revealed a clear tendency for learners to express a preference for receiving CF over having their errors ignored. • The extent to which learners want to be corrected is generally higher than that of teachers’ wish to do so. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    44. Types of Corrective Feedback (Lyster and Ranta, 1997) • Reformulations • Reformulate learners’ non-target output • Explicit correction • Recasts • Prompts • Push learners to self-repair without providing the correct form: • Clarification requests • Metalinguistic clues • Elicitation • Repetition of error Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    45. 1. Explicit Correction • The teacher supplies the correct form and clearly indicates that what the student had said was incorrect. Example: S: We cut the straws into six different thicknesses and attach the straws with tape. T: Henry, excuse me, I want you to use the word length. You cut the straws into different lengths. Not thicknesses. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    46. 2. Recasts • The teacher implicitly reformulates the student’s utterance, minus the error Example: S: Yo me gusta jugar. T: A mí me gusta jugar. S1: Why you don’t like Marc? T: Why don’t you like Marc? S2: I don’t know I just don’t like him. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    47. 3. Clarification requests • The teacher pretends that the message has not been understood: Example: S: Yo soy seis años. T: ¿Cómo? No te entendí. Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    48. 4. Metalinguistic Clues • Without providing the correct form, the teacher provides comments, information, or questions about the form of the student’s utterance. Example: S: Nouvelle Ecosse… T: Oh, but that’s in French. S: We found out that the south and the south don’t like to stick together T: Now let’s start using our scientific language Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    49. 5. Elicitation • The teacher elicits correct forms by asking questions like “What’s a better way of saying that?” Example: S: El niño fue al bathroom. T: ¿Cómo se dice eso en Español? S: Pásame esa cosa. T: ¿Hay otra palabra mejor que “cosa” para describir lo que quieres? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN

    50. 6. Repetition of error • The teacher repeats the student’s error, adding intonational stress. Example: S: ¿El…el mano? T: ¿El mano? S: Yo tienes hambre. T: ¿Yo tienes hambre? Adapted from Roy Lyster: Counterbalanced Instruction in the Immersion Classroom: Presented at CARLA Summer Institute, August 2012, Minneapolis, MN