Weight Management: A Multi-Million $$$ A Year BusinessChapter 11 • 95 million American adults are overweight or obese • Are you digging a grave with a fork? • Yankee stadium
Why Are Americans Over-weight? Lack of exercise Large servings (excessive calories) Hand to mouth disease Food selections Label misrepresentation Labor saving devices / technology Genetics (not a major factor) Childhood fatness Lifestyle / celebrations
Body Composition • Fat weight vs. non-fat or lean body weight / mass • Lean mass includes muscles, tendons, bones, connective tissue, organs, etc
Essential Fat • Minimal amount of fat required by the body • Temperature regulation, shock absorption, organ protection • 3% males • 10-12% females
Normal Body Fat Ranges For College Aged Males And Females • Males 15 - 20% • Females 20 - 25% • > 25% males • > 30% females • Health becomes compromised at these levels and above (over-fatness)
Android Obesity vs. Gynoid Obesity (previously covered) • Android obesity: applesRegional fat storage in the abdomen and upper body • Related to higher cardiovascular risk, stroke, and diabetes • Gynoid Obesity “pears” • Regional fat storage below the waist • Genetics plays a role
Spot Reduction • There is no such thing as “spot reduction” in reference to fat storage • Fat cannot be burned off by wearing special “fat burning” suits, specific activities, using specific lotions or herbs, or consuming specific foods.
Number Of Adipose (fat) Cells • Cell number increases prior to birth until sometime during puberty (hyperplasia) • The number of adipose cells becomes fixed in early adulthood • When adults gain or lose weight, it is the result of changes in fat storage within each fat cell
Is usually determined by life insurance weight tables Tables do not address the issue of body composition Ideal Body Weight
Pete Medium frame 5”11” 160 pounds 25%BF Willie Medium frame 5’11” 175 pounds 15%BF Compare 2 MenRecommended weight: 154 to 166Which one would be the most healthy based on this information?
Hydrostatic Weighing • Most accurate • Margin of error 2.5% • Time consuming, expensive, complex procedure
Skinfold Measurement • Measured by use of skinfold calipers • Margin of error 3.7% • Sites for males and females vary • Number of sites varies: 2,3,5,or 7 site test
Skinfold Measurement #2 • Fairly accurate • Time saving • Less costly • Most commonly used technique
Bio-Electrical Impedance • Measures the resistance to the flow of electrical current in the body • Electricity will flow through the tissue offering least resistance (lean tissue) • Expensive • Not very valid
Girth Measurements • Used by the military • Inaccurate for some
Weight Management • Recommended weight loss • 1 - 2 pounds weekly
Caloric Information • Definition ofcalorie: The energy value of food vs. the cost of activity • 3500 calories = 1 pound • In a weeks time, if you consume 3500 more calories than you burn, you will gain one pound • 1500 calories minimum for males • 1200 minimum for females
Example: • Kim wants to lose 25 pounds in 2 months • She is in caloric balance(energy balance) = 1800 calories (BMR = 1300 calories+ 500 in activity) • Attempts a near-fasting diet(600-800 calories daily) • The body must “learn to live on fewer calories”, so BMR may drop to 900 • She loses weight and begins to eat a little more: 1600 calories (BMR=900 + 500 in activity) • Result: weight gain on fewer calories
BMR Calories Burned at Rest in 24 Hours • 70% of total daily expenditure is related to BMR (basal metabolic rate) • Factors that affect BMR: age, sedentary lifestyle, gender, caloric intake, exercise • Increase in lean mass = increase in BMR • Metabolism is elevated for a time even when activity has ceased
Requirements To Lose Or Maintain Weight • Lifetime commitment to change • Establish realistic goals • A lifetime of exercise • Healthy food selections • Low fat foods • Smaller servings • Limit refined carbohydrates • Foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber
Weight Control • Eat slowly or choose foods that take time to eat • Stay busy / Avoid automatic eating • Plan meals ahead of time • Do not serve more than you SHOULD eat • Designated eating location (table) • Alter your lifestyle in ways you can “live with” • Make one change at a time
Suggestions Helpful In Meeting Goals • Record food intake • Analyze eating patterns • Avoid total deprivation of favorite foods • Reduce calories and exercise
How Hard Is It To Lose 5 Pounds? • Walk 2 miles per day (200 calories), in addition to your present activity for 88 days (3 months / 176 miles) with no change in diet. • Walk 2 miles per day and reduce daily caloric intake by 200 calories ( 1T of mayonnaise and 1 pat of butter) Lose 5 pounds in 6 weeks!!
How Hard Is It To Gain 5 Pounds? • Eat 1 extra cookie per day that has 200 calories and gain 5 pounds in 3 months. • If cookie, or equivalent is consumed, 2 miles of walking would burn off the calories and weight would remain the same.
Burn Oxygen To Lose Weight • In order to burn stored fat, aerobic activity needs to last 45 minutes or longer • As oxygen consumption increases, caloric expenditure increases
Weight Management #2 • Example: • Reduce caloric intake by 200-300 calories per day • Increase caloric expenditure by 200 - 300 calories per day(approx. 100 calories burned per mile) • 600 calorie deficit over 7 days = 4200 calories or >1 lb. lost
Weight Management #3 • Example: walk/run 3 times a week (3 miles) = 900 calories burned • In 1 month, one pound is lost • In one year, 13.5 pounds are lost • Weight loss as a result of exercise = 80-90% fat tissue (10-20% lean tissue)
Weight Management #4 • Weight loss as a result of diet alone = 35-45% of the weight lost will be lean tissue • Aerobic activity and resistive training should be included in any weight control program.
Hierarchy of Nutrient Utilization • Carbohydrates • Are not easily stored as fat • Fats • Increases caloric intake • Easily stored as fat • Proteins • Are burned as a last resort (for the most part) and are not easily stored as fat • Are not easily stored as fat • Two best fuels for activity: • Carbohydrates (blood sugar) and fats (stored fat)
“Creeping Obesity” • Weight gain resulting from a small positive caloric balance over time. • Starting at age 25, the average American gains 1 pound a year • That’s 10 calories more per day than expended = 1 potato chip
Set Point Theory • Is there a body fat thermostat or body “fatometer”? • Theory: Every individual has a particular body fat level that their body tries to maintain.
Lowering Your Set Point • Exercise (aerobic) • Low fat, high carbohydrate diet • Diets high in fat, refined sugars, and artificial sweeteners have been shown to raise set point levels.
Eating Disorders • 63% of Americans are overweight • 14% are underweight • Anorexia nervosa • Bulimia • Most are in denial
Anorexia Nervosa: General Characteristics • Self-imposed starvation • Primarily females • Psycho-social eating disorder • Intense, inappropriate, unmanaged fear of fatness, despite being underweight • Distorted body perception • Often begins around puberty (perfectionist / dominating mother)
Bulimia: Descriptive Characteristics • Are of normal or slightly below normal weights • Binge, purge cycles • Self-induced vomiting / laxatives • Excessive exercise • Intense, extreme, negative perception of self
Bulimia: Statistical Data • Higher rate of affliction in females • 20% of female college population demonstrate bulimic behaviors at some time.
Overeaters: Food Addiction • It is not always what you’re eating but rather, WHAT’S EATING YOU!!
Treatment of All Eating Disorders: • Early intervention • Psychological intervention • Medical intervention
Practical Guidelines for Gaining Weight • Increase caloric intake • 500-1000 extra calories per day • High carbohydrate intake • Avoid high fat foods • Increase lean body mass, not fat mass
Let’s Go Have Lunch!! • Make wise choices • Traditional menu vs. healthy, p. 277 • Portion size p. 278
Discussion • Promotional Weight Loss • Products • Food Labels • Food game