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The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling

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  1. The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling Randall Wroble MD

  2. Historical Overview • In late 1997, 3 college wrestlers died while attempting to rapidly lose excessive amounts of weight by intense exercise and dehydration • That set in motion a series of events that culminated in the rules we discuss today

  3. Why Weight Loss? • Wrestlers lose weight to make weight classes • Leaner wrestlers are more effective • Weight loss is good when fat is lost but is detrimental when carried to abusive levels • We need to make sports safe for the competitors

  4. Goals • Safe weight loss practices • Eliminate rapid fluctuation in weight • Focus the sport on competition not weight loss

  5. History • First generation rule changes - 1998-99 – 2005-06 rules: • Certify at lowest actual weight no later then 1/8 • Compete at certified weight on or before 1/8 • One-half of his weigh-ins at certified weight • Use of sweat boxes, hot showers, whirlpools, rubber, vinyl and plastic type suits, diuretics, or other methods prohibited • Weigh-in a maximum of 1 hour before dual meet begins • Random draw for starting weight class in each dual meet

  6. National Federation • “Beginning in 2006-07, each state association shall develop and utilize a weight-management program” • Hydration testing that includes a urine specific gravity not to exceed 1.025 • Body fat assessment no lower than 7% males/12% females • Monitored weekly weight loss plan not to exceed 1.5% a week. • 48 states sponsor HS wrestling • 29 states have or will have this type of program in place

  7. Objections to the Rule • Effectiveness of current wrestling rules • Complaints have dropped off precipitously • Accuracy of body fat testing • ± 3-4%, a span of nearly 10 lbs crossing 2 weight classes • Racial differences • Validity of urine specific gravity testing • Doesn’t curb rapid episodic weight loss • The problem is the method of weight loss • Dehydration can be physiologically dangerous • Caused virtually all the problems associated with weight loss in the past

  8. Objections to the Rule • Inequity for kids especially football players who are losing substantial fat • No significant problem with low body fat • Some wrestlers are naturally 7% body fat • 3%/week in NCAA heat publications • Costs and administrative burden

  9. Objections to the Rule • Differences between high school and college wrestlers have been substantially ignored • Less intense set of ethics and standards about weight loss • Serves to take away an elite athlete's options • May affect performance or scholarship goals negatively • New Mexico lawsuit

  10. OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW • Wrestlers frequently attempt to lose weight rapidly, often in an unhealthy and unsafe manner, to gain a perceived advantage

  11. OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW • Program developed in response to the need for guidance of wrestlers as they make decisions about diet, nutrition, and weight control • Promoting proper weight maintenance among high school wrestlers by developing a weight control program that encourages safe weight loss • Program designed to assist wrestlers and coaches in avoiding potentially harmful, rapid weight reduction practices

  12. OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW • Many states have instituted body composition testing programs in the past several years • Purposes of body composition testing program • Determine the lowest safe and healthy weight for each wrestler • Provide a safe wrestling experience for all high school wrestlers • The wrestler’s lowest certifiable weight may not be his or her optimal competitive weight

  13. OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW • In addition to this weight certification program, • Imperative that wrestling coaches monitor athletes throughout the entire season to ensure they are maintaining or losing weight in a healthy and safe manner

  14. Steps of Testing Procedure • These measurements should ideally be taken prior to the first practice but must be performed prior to the first competition • It is strongly suggested that at least 2 schools participate in each testing session. This will allow more personnel to help with the process, alleviate travel costs to regional sites, and mitigate concerns about the integrity of the process

  15. Getting Ready for the Test • No vigorous activity on the evening before and the day of the testing. • Avoid any caffeinated beverages on the day before and day of the testing. • On the day of testing, drink 500ml (17 oz.) Of fluid. (A sports drink is an excellent choice). • In preparation for the hydration test drink 2-4 cups of water in 1-2 hour period immediately preceding the test.

  16. Be awake three hours prior to testing. • Do not eat two hours prior to testing. • Avoid any vitamin or mineral supplements two days before and the day of testing.

  17. Upon Arrival… • Wrestlers should report in “weigh-in attire” only • Males should be dressed in a t-shirt and shorts • Females should be dressed in shorts, a sports bra and tank top • Each athlete is required to have a completed individual profile form and parental permission form • Complete demographics section prior to arrival • First report to the station where weight is recorded

  18. Step 1 - Assessment of Hydration Status

  19. Completion of a hydration test is required before any wrestler can undergo a body composition or weight assessment • Purposes: • Dehydration will concentrate urine and thereby increase the urine’s specific gravity. Accurate determination of minimum wrestling weight from assessments requires the wrestler to be property hydrated • Dehydration or loss of water weight will directly affect minimal wrestling weight

  20. Hydration Requirement • Hydration testing is done immediately prior to and at the same site where the body composition testing occurs • Each wrestler must pass a test to substantiate that they are at an acceptable level of hydration before they can proceed. Urine specific gravity must be 1.025 or less

  21. Hydration Requirement • Wrestlers who fail the hydration measurement will need to: • Reschedule assessment no sooner than 48 hours following test failure • Pay another full assessment fee at their re-test

  22. What Is Specific Gravity? • Indication of relative proportion of dissolved solid components to the total volume of the specimen • An indication of relative degree of concentration of the sample • Elevated whenever with excessive loss of water through sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or elevated body temperature • Elevated glucose and protein do not tend to affect the test • Typically higher in the first morning sample and will be different in random samples through the day

  23. Obtaining A Urine Sample • To assure an appropriate urine sample has been collected for testing the following procedures are required: • Area • A bathroom with toilet(s) or urinal(s) can be used by the wrestler to provide a urine sample. The determination of specific gravity can be completed in another area, but a means of appropriately disposing of the urine must be available as well

  24. Obtaining A Urine Sample • Safety • Use gloves when measuring the urine and appropriately dispose of the urine • Place cup in hazard collection system • Collection containers: paper cups of sufficient size to provide a 20-30 ml (1-2 oz) urine sample can be used by the wrestler to collect the sample

  25. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • School personnelmust ensure that the wrestler has provided a sample of their own urine. Reasonable supervision is the key • Water faucets must be shut off. Wrestlers should not have access to the sinks where water can be added to the samples • Blue, green or red dye may be added to the toilet so that wrestlers will not be tempted to dip their cup in the toilet water

  26. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • School personnel must supervise the process of urine sample collection. Reasonable supervisiondoes not mean witnessing the sample going from the body into the cup • School personnel are to ensure that conditions do not exist that could compromise the integrity of the urine sample collection (bulky clothes, other containers, dipping the cup into the toilet water, horseplay, etc)

  27. Butt Wedge & the Whizzinator

  28. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • School personnel should be in all traffic areas between the collection area and the testing area. Any possible problem in the urine collection of an athlete necessitates voiding their sample and the provision of another sample with more scrutiny • Normally one to three wrestlers can be supervised at one time by school personnel

  29. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • The following procedures have been developed to minimize dishonest techniques to bypass the urine test and maximize the athletes’ right to privacy • Mark each urine collection cup to identify each wrestler. The athlete’s collection number should be marked on the container. This number corresponds to the number on the individual profile form • Instruct each wrestler to enter the toilet or urinal one at a time with nothing but the urine collection cup

  30. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • Instruct the wrestler to begin urinating; Allowing a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this clears the urethra contaminants) • Then, in the urine collection cup, catch approximately 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the collection cup from the urine stream • Allow reasonable time for the wrestler to provide a sample of urine

  31. Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample • After collection of the urine by the wrestler, appropriate personnel should ensure that the urine is warm by feel on the outside of the collection cup • If the urine is cold or suspect, reject that sample and require the wrestler to provide another sample under closer supervision • Once completed, the wrestler will give the sample to the proper authority and move along through the assessment process

  32. Testing The Sample • Only urine dipsticks will be used to measure hydration levels. The Bayer Multistix and Chemstrips or their equivalent are the required urine dipsticks to be used • The cost of reagent strips averages about $50.00 for a package of 100

  33. Testing The Sample • Assessor tests the sample using a urine dipstick according to the manufacturer’s directions • Strip is pulled from container • Note: trim the strip so the “specific gravity” is the bottom block (furthest from finger tips) • Completely immerses strip in fresh urine sample • Make certain all reagent patches are moistened

  34. Testing The Sample • Strip should be removed immediately running edge of strip along container to remove excess urine (caution not to “whip” or “snap” urine residue from free end of strip) • Allow strip to air dry in horizontal position • Hold strip next to color chart on bottle or supplied card • Compare specific gravity to color on card at 1 min

  35. Testing The Sample • Assessor records the wrestler’s actual reading on the individual profile form and check pass or fail • Measurements greater than 1.025 will disqualify the athlete from continuing with the rest of the assessment • Wrestlers who pass the hydration test will move on to the next step in the assessment process

  36. Instruments Urine Test Strips

  37. Step 2 – Assessment of Body Composition • Those meeting the specific hydration requirement will proceed to skinfold assessment area • Area should be controlled so the assessor can concentrate on the accuracy and communication of scores to the recorder • The setting should allow privacy for the subject and confidentiality of the recorded information

  38. Skinfold Assessment • Based on the relationship between subcutaneous fat & total body fat and its inverse relationship to body density • Subject is measured at a selected number of sites to determine the thickness of the skin and the subcutaneous fat deposition • Skinfold thicknesses are used in an equation to calculate body density • Equations have been derived for specific populations, which is a key to validity of the prediction.

  39. As shown below, the goal is to measure a double fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue (with sides of skinfold approximately parallel). The thicker the fat layer, the wider the fold.

  40. Standardized Skinfold Assessment • A key to the success of this program is the ability to standardize the assessment procedures and the calculations • Do not take measurements when the subject's skin is moist (ensure that the skin is dry, and has no lotion) • Do not take measurements immediately after exercise • May be a problem because some wrestlers may be attempt rapid weight reduction through exercise just prior to the assessment

  41. Measuring a Skinfold • The subject should be standing in the anatomical position with the skin for potential skinfold sites exposed • All measurements are obtained on the right side of the body • Identify the sites to be measured. The triceps, abdomen and subscapular folds for males. The triceps and subscapular for females

  42. Measuring a Skinfold • Palpate the site to familiarize both you and the subject with the area to be measured • Carefully mark the sites • The largest source of error in skinfold testing is inaccurate site selection • Become familiar with the width of the thumb and index finger as well as the perpendicular approach to site assessment prior to the elevation of each specific skinfold

  43. Measuring a Skinfold • Elevate the double fold of skin and subcutaneous fat with the thumb and index finger of the left hand 1 cm above or adjacent to the measurement site on the long axis of the measurement • The fold should be lifted in such a manner as to have two parallel sides • Keep the fold elevated as you measure • During the measurement, ensure that the shape of the skinfold is maintained

  44. Measuring a Skinfold • Measure with caliper in right hand. Hold the caliper perpendicular to the skinfold and with the skinfold dial facing up and easily readable • Place the caliper pads 1 cm below the fingers and half-way the depth of the fat fold • Release the caliper pads gently • Caliper measurement surface should be in contact with the skinfold for 2 to 4 seconds

  45. Measuring a Skinfold • Open the jaws prior to removing off the body • Record to nearest 0.5 mm • Obtain (through rotation of sites) three measures (at least 15 seconds apart) with no more than a 0.5 mm difference between any two measurements (eg. 9.5, 10, 10.5). For wrestlers with very thick skinfolds, measuring within 1-2 mm is more realistic and is acceptable

  46. Measuring a Skinfold • Record for each of three sites for males (sub scapular, abdominal and triceps) • Record only sub scapular and abdominal measurements for females • Record in the boxes on the skinfold data worksheets

  47. Instrumentation • Lange skinfold calipers or equivalent are the only accepted instruments to determine body fat percentage • The calipers must have been checked for accuracy using a calibration block prior to the beginning of the current wrestling season • The average cost of calipers is around $150 to $200

  48. Instrumentation • A tape measure for site location especially during training and practice for site identification • A felt pen (preferably washable ink) for site identification • A certified/calibrated scale for determination of total body weight at same time as skinfold assessment. The scale must have been certified within the previous year

  49. Lange Skinfold Calipers

  50. Site Selection and Identification • The sites and regression equation selected for the program are those described specifically for use with young male wrestlers and the Boileau equation for females.