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9TH Grade Global Issues Semester 2 Unit: URBANIZATION & MIGRATION PowerPoint 1: An Introduction to Urbanization. Topic : A Brief History of Cities. Key Questions: What is the definition of a city? When did people start living in cities? What was the first city like?

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Topic a brief history of cities

9TH Grade Global Issues Semester 2 Unit:URBANIZATION & MIGRATIONPowerPoint 1: An Introduction to Urbanization

Topic a brief history of cities
Topic: A Brief History of Cities

Key Questions:

  • What is the definition of a city?

  • When did people start living in cities?

  • What was the first city like?

  • How have cities evolved over time?

Topic a brief history of cities

The Demographic Definition of a City

This definition was first codified by sociologist Louis Wirth in his influential 1938 paper, “Urbanism as a way of life” (Wirth 1938). Cities, according to Wirth, are defined by four characteristics:

1. Permanence2. Large population size3. High population density4. Social heterogeneity

This sounds pretty good to most modern ears. It certainly fits contemporary cities, although there is always room for quibbling with quantitative definitions (How many people? How much heterogeneity?). To use the demographic definition, one looks at a settlement, makes some measurements, and decides whether or not it is a city.

Source: http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.com/2011/02/what-is-city-definitions-of-urban.html

Topic a brief history of cities

The Functional Definition of Urban or City

Although there may be precursors, most modern functional definitions of cities derive from mid-20th century economic geography, where central place theory focused on the regional distribution of retail market centers. Market centers provisioned a hinterland, and the larger the hinterland (and the more goods and services provided), the more important the center. In these models retail marketing is an urban function—an activity or institution located within a settlement that affects people and places beyond the settlement. Later developments in anthropology and geography expanded the notion of urban function beyond economics to include politics and religion (Fox 1977). From this perspective, the Classic Maya jungle cities can be considered urban because their kings ruled city-states larger than the individual settlement, and their temples were the focus of worship for peasants as well as urban dwellers. From the demographic perspective, on the other hand, the Maya centers were not big enough to be called cities. To use the functional definition, one cannot simply look at a settlement and decide whether it is urban; one has to look at the entire regional context, including the hinterland and other nearby settlements. If the settlement in question was the setting for people and institutions that impacted a larger realm, it can be considered an urban settlement.

Source: http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.com/2011/02/what-is-city-definitions-of-urban.html

Where was the world s first city
Where was the world’s first city?

  • It is believed, the first cities were probably built in Mesopotamia, modern day Iraq, at around 8000 BC.

  • Cities such as Babylon were among the largest permanent settlements in the ancient world.

  • However, discoveries in 2010, suggest that the first cities may have been in Syria, built before this time.

  • The city of Damascus, has survived to become the longest-inhabited city in the world and the capitol of Syria.

  • Older groups of buildings have been found in Europe, Egypt and Japan, but they are not large as those in the Middle East.

Topic a brief history of cities

The Growth & Evolution of the World’s Largest Cities

Source: http://www.riazhaq.com/2009/09/urbanization-in-pakistan-highest-in.html

The world s most livable cities
The World’s Most Livable Cities

  • Every year the Economist Intelligence Unit publishes a list of the world most livable cities.

  • In google, type the following:

    Economist Intelligence Unit Worlds most livable cities

    Study at least 3 different websites and answer the following questions:

  • What does livability mean?

  • What criteria does the Economist magazine use to rank the world’s most livable cities?

  • What were the top 10 cities in 2012? Why?

  • What cities ranked near the bottom in the survey?

The key challenges facing cities

  • What are the top 10 challenges facing Cities?

  • This powerpoint has provided 4, to get you started.

  • Working with a partner, suggest 6 other urban challenges.

  • Describe each challenge.

  • Develop a key question(s) that you think, deserves further investigation.

Key challenges for cities 1 improving public transport
Key Challenges For Cities:1. Improving Public Transport

  • Traffic congestion and associated air pollution are major problems in many cities.

  • However, some cities have implemented world class public transport solutions, that have eased congestion and reduced environment degradation.

  • Key Question(s)

    (1a) What cities have world class & high quality public transportation?

    (1b) How can other cities followed this model?

    (2) What are the economic benefits for a cities that reduce congestion?

Key challenges for cities 2 improving policing reducing crime
Key Challenges For Cities:2. Improving Policing & Reducing Crime

  • Living in a city should provide additional security and safety to it residents, but often this is not the case.

  • However, some large cities in the world have significantly reduced crime and are experiencing a range of benefits as a result.

    Key Questions

  • What are the most cost-effective ways to reduce crime, and what cities have been most successful?

  • What are the economic benefits of low crime in an urban area?

Key challenges for cities 3 affordable adequate housing
Key Challenges for Cities3.Affordable & Adequate Housing

  • Barrios or Shanty Towns in developing countries are the most obvious example of urban decay.

  • However, even in developed countries, housing can be expensive and, as a result, people live in cramped conditions or alternatively are forced to live on the outskirts of a city, far from the CBD.

    Key Questions

  • How can cities in developing countries provide better housing for their poorer residents?

  • How can governments make housing more affordable, without excessive government spending?

Key challenges for cities 4 urban open space recreational areas
Key Challenges for Cities4.Urban Open Space & Recreational Areas

  • The “concrete jungle” has become an expression used to describe many large cities around the world.

  • A lack of open spaces, parks and recreational opportunities can impact our quality of life.

    Key Challenges

    (1) How much green area do urban planners need to set aside to improve livability?

    (2) What cities around the world are noted for their outstanding parks, open areas and recreational opportunities? Are these man made or natural?

Topic a brief history of cities

Source: http://www.rtcc.org/asian-mega-cities-need-green-urbanisation-to-avoid-climate-change-disaster-warns-adb/

Topic a brief history of cities

Source: http://switchwatersummit.wordpress.com/2009/10/08/is-there-such-a-thing-as-sustainable-urbanisation/

Topic a brief history of cities

Source: http://lynnevey.com/eleweb/urbanisation_waster%20management.html