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Volcanoes. What is a Volcano?. Hot Lava. Cold Rock. ACTIVE. Z. Z. z. DORMANT. EXTINCT. Mountains that erupt lava. Hawaii. How Hot is Lava?. 1160°C. Heat suit. USGS photo by R.L. Christiansen Jan.9, 1973. Measuring the temperature. Inside and below a Volcano. vent. cone.

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Volcanoes

    2. What is a Volcano? Hot Lava Cold Rock ACTIVE Z Z z DORMANT EXTINCT Mountains that erupt lava Hawaii

    3. How Hot is Lava? 1160°C Heat suit USGS photo by R.L. Christiansen Jan.9, 1973 Measuring the temperature

    4. Inside and below a Volcano vent cone magma chamber conduit

    5. What is lava and magma? melt +crystals +bubbles

    6. Where does magma come from? • A look inside the Earth Mantle Solid that flows Runny Outer Core Crust Solid Inner Core Solid

    7. Where does magmacome from? • A look at the mantle and crust Crust Mantle

    8. Why do volcanoes erupt? Hot air Cold air Ocean Cold Crust HotMelt HotMantle Cooler Mantle

    9. How do they erupt? • EXPLOSIVE • EFFUSIVE magma magma Sticky Lots of Bubbles Runny Not many bubbles

    10. How do they erupt? • EFFUSIVE • EXPLOSIVE Sticky Lots of Bubbles! Runny Not many Bubbles Hawaii

    11. Explosive Volcanoes Montserrat Montserrat Ash Fall Pyroclastic Flow Pyroclastic Flow Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch Pyroclastic Flow

    12. Effusive Volcanoes • ’a’a • Pahoehoe Aaflows Pahoehoe flows Rough Lots of pieces Smooth or Ropy Courtesy of A. Rust Courtesy of A. Rust

    13. Where can we find volcanoes? Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program World map of volcanoes erupted within the past 10,000 years

    14. Activity

    15. Activity Whathelps make explosive eruptions? • Making a Volcanic Eruption • You will need: • 2 litre bottle of soda or cola • 1 roll of mints

    16. Activity USGS/Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Photo by J.D. Griggs Bubbles

    17. Volcanic Hazards Danger to People, Places and Things

    18. Volcanic Hazards Bent bars of a broken house. Which way did the flow go? Fast flowing rocks! • Explosive:Pyroclastic Flow • Flows sweeping away buildings

    19. Volcanic Hazards • Explosive:Burial • Flows burying buildings

    20. Volcanic Hazards • Explosive:Burns • Hot flows burning trees and buildings.

    21. Volcanic Hazards • Explosive:Lahars • Fast flowing water and rock

    22. Volcanic Hazards • Explosive:Ash Fall • Ash falling from eruption USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo by David Wieprecht

    23. Volcanic Hazards Effusive:Lava Flows Pahoehoe flows Courtesy of Swisseduc.ch

    24. Volcanic Hazards • Noxious Gas • Magma loses bubbles • Gas leaks into the air

    25. Volcanic Hazards Japan • Earthquakes • Magma pushes on crust • Shakes and breaks buildings and roads

    26. Volcanoes Examples from Past and Present Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch

    27. Pompeii • Vesuvius, Italy – 79AD • Explosive • Ash and flows covered Pompeii

    28. Pompeii cc. of Crew Creative cc. Crew Creative Gladiator’s Barracks Pompeii Excavations

    29. Pompeii Plaster casts of bodies

    30. Pompeii Naples Vesuvius Bay of Naples Pompeii Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch Vesuvius today

    31. Pelée Before After Mt. Pelée, Martinique - 1902

    32. Pelée Why? Photo by Angelo Heilprin 29,000 people died 2 survived

    33. Heimaey Vestmannaeyjer, Iceland - 1973

    34. Heimaey Lava flows caught people by surprise

    35. Heimaey Spraying seawater to slow or stop lava flows

    36. ? Question What can we do to help people who live near active volcanoes? Mt. St. Helens 1. Look and Learn 2. Watch Active Volcanoes 3. Escape Plans 4. Find out why people live near volcanoes 5. Teach

    37. Volcano monitoring

    38. Volcano Monitoring Volcano Observatories on Active Volcanoes

    39. Volcano Monitoring tiltmeter magma tiltmeter tiltmeter magma Ground bulging or popping up

    40. Volcano Monitoring Earthquakes

    41. Volcano Monitoring Gas or Bubbles

    42. Brain Challenge Questions about Volcanoes Photo: Tom Pfeiffer / www.volcanodiscovery.com

    43. Brain Challenge V____ e n t What is a volcano? Mountains that erupt . l a v a Cone Lava is very: hotcold Conduit A dormant volcano is: awake asleep M a g m a ________ chamber What is lava and magma? m + bubbles + crystals e l t Why do volcanoes erupt? Hot magma wants to go: up down How do volcanoes erupt? Two types: e and effusive . x p l o s i v e What helps make explosive volcanoes erupt? . b u b b l e s Explosive volcanoes erupt a lot of into the air. a s h Do effusive volcanoes have runny or sticky lava? . r u n n y Can lava burn trees and houses? yes Can you outrun a pyroclastic flow? no Questions

    44. Danger on the Island C Active B Extinct A Extinct N 3km Where can people live safely on the island?

    45. Montserrat Pyroclastic Flow Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch Real-Life Scenario

    46. The End