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Leadership Institute VI: Legacy of Leadership Developing & Implementing Global Initiatives in the Curriculum. Dorothy L. Powell , EdD , RN, FAAN Associate Dean, Global & Community Health Initiatives Duke University School of Nursing June 14, 2013. Objectives.

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Leadership Institute VI: Legacy of LeadershipDeveloping & Implementing Global Initiatives in the Curriculum

Dorothy L. Powell , EdD, RN, FAAN

Associate Dean, Global & Community Health Initiatives

Duke University School of Nursing

June 14, 2013

  • Discuss the importance of global health to society and nursing;
  • Differentiate among types of international experiences;
  • Analyze mission, philosophy, purpose and goals of nursing programs in relation to global health;
  • Describe cardinal principles of global engagement;
  • Analyze elements for planning and implementing global health experiences for nursing students; and
  • Examine an international experience for BSN students in a rural clinical setting.
importance of a global focus in education and health
Importance of a Global Focus in Education and Health
  • Global economy
  • Global society
  • Global policy
  • Advanced technology/instant communication
  • Ease of knowledge transfer
  • Frequency of international travel
  • Rates of migration
migration to the usa 40 4 million in 2011
Migration to the USA(40.4 million in 2011)
  • 29% Mexico
  • 9% Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, T&T) [2009]
  • 5% China
  • 5% India
  • 4% Philippines
  • 3% El Salvador, Vietnam, Cuba, & Korea (each)
  • 4% Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya)
  • 2% Dominican Republic, Guatemala (both)
global health problems
Global Health Problems

Millennium Development Goals

  • Eradicate extreme hunger
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equity
  • Reduce child & infant mortality
  • Improve maternal health
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Global partnerships for development

(UN Partners on MDGs)

world map
World Map

Courtesy of

global disparity for hiv prevalence
Global Disparity for HIV Prevalence

Courtesy of

global disparity for malaria deaths
Global Disparity for Malaria Deaths

Courtesy of

global disparity for nurses working
Global Disparity for Nurses Working

Courtesy of

global disparity for physicians working
Global Disparity for Physicians Working

Courtesy of

common forms of international deployment
Common Forms of International Deployment
  • Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes.
  • Mission Trips are usually sponsored by a faith-based organization with specific plans to benefit people or groups outside of one’s culture.
  • Cultural Immersion Experiences refer to more than just being there; it is living the culture every day – not as a tourist, but more like a local, truly taking part in the life of another country. It is gaining a greater understanding of the culture and language, and gaining a deeper understanding of the world.
short term engagement
Short Term Engagement
  • Increasing Prevalence
    • 45% vs 6% “Year Abroad”

(Hoffa, 2007)

  • Longitudinal study on Nursing students
    • long-term positive
    • sustained qualitative transformation, but not quantitative

(Bosworth, 2006; Haloburdo & Thompson, 1998; Webb, 2008)

critical global principles
Critical Global Principles
  • Value of a gatekeeper
  • Mutually beneficial experience
  • Respect for counterparts
  • Clarity of roles and responsibilities
  • Shared Learning
  • Sufficient financial and human resources
  • Potential for dissimilar exchange
  • Cultural adaptation
  • Ethnocentrism
definition dangers of ethnocentrism
Definition & Dangers of Ethnocentrism
  • Habitual disposition to judge foreign people or groups by the standards and practices of one’s own culture and ethnic group. (Merriam-Webster, 1993)
  • Potential for:
    • resentment
    • derailed plans
    • unsatisfactory experience
    • failure to learn about another culture
    • potential inability to return
is global health part of your mission
Is Global Health Part of Your Mission?
  • Mission
  • Philosophy
  • Goals and Objectives
  • Curriculum
planning and implementing global health experiences
Planning and Implementing Global Health Experiences
  • Type and purpose of experience sought?
    • Humanitarian
    • Enrichment
    • Part of curriculum for credit
  • Level of student targeted?
  • Selection of students?
    • Criteria
    • Requirements
    • Payment
  • Role & Responsibilities of faculty; preceptors?
  • Legal implications of international experiences for credit?
planning and implementing global health experiences continued
Planning and Implementing Global Health Experiences (continued)
  • Housing
  • Food & Safe Consumption
  • Clothing
  • Language
  • Local Transportation
  • Cultural Etiquette
  • Money
  • Safety
  • Health Care
planning and implementing global health experiences continued1
Planning and Implementing Global Health Experiences (continued)
  • Objectives to be accomplished?
    • Degree of latitude acceptable
    • Addressing different standards of care
    • Unique vs. standard skills
    • Resource availability vs. adaptation
  • Guidance and supervision
    • Role of own faculty
    • Role of nursing staff
    • Role of faculty from partnering institution
  • Evaluation
    • Undergraduates
    • Graduates
enabling mechanisms for global experiences
Enabling Mechanisms for Global Experiences
  • Prior Visitation
  • MOU or Contract
  • Partner or Representative In-Country
  • Orientation
    • Pre-departure
    • Arrival
  • Cost and Covering Cost
  • Visa/Immigration Considerations
  • State Department Registration
  • Immunizations
  • Insurance and Health Care
  • Rules and Policies

EXAMPLE:2011 Cultural Immersion Experience Teamwork City of Hope (TCOH)

August 15-26, 2011

Duke University School of Nursing

Nursing 231

specific community health objectives at tcoh
Specific Community Health Objectives at TCOH
  • Conduct environmental assessments at TCOH, identify health risks, and recommend remediation within the context of setting, resources, and culture.
  • Identify potential environmental health risksthrough participation in a riding/walking windshield survey of the broader Ntagatchacommunity, from TCOH to Tarime, around Tarime, and the district hospital.
  • Assess general health status of the children, compare with 2010 data, and report findings to officials at TCOH. Include growth & development health status, compared with norms.
  • Based on previously assessed needs, develop and deliver health promotion classes and activities for the children, and the staff (as relates to their responsibilities) that can be incorporated and sustained over time.
  • Create a product that can be provided to staff as a resource for reinforcing and sustaining positive health practices.
resources needed
Resources Needed
  • Summary of 2010 health assessment
  • Environmental health assessment tool
  • Template for windshield survey
  • Key informant interview on health issues, available health resources, and cultural norms
community health activities
Community Health Activities
  • Conduct environmental assessments of:
    • Children’s Home
    • Health Center
    • The grounds
    • The near-by community
  • Riding/walking tour from TCOH to Tarime; around Tarime; and the district hospital
  • Repeat health assessment of 2010
community health activities continued
Community Health Activities (continued)
  • Health Promotion Classes for children and staff
    • Hygiene and hand-washing (not just what to do, but why important)
    • Malaria prevention and control
    • TB, Typhoid, Yellow Fever, Pneumonia
    • Diarrheal conditions; why it occurs, prevention, and management
    • How do diseases spread (respiratory, GI, communicable diseases); Prevention
  • Skin conditions (ringworms, lice, tropical ulcers)
  • Nutrition Projects (attention to common and available foods)
  • Managing child health emergencies
  • Creating a comprehensive health guide/resource for TCOH
  • Bosworth, T.L., Haloburdo, E.P., Hetrick, C., Patchett, K., Thompson, M.A., Welch, M. (2006). International partnerships to promote quality care: Faculty groundwork, student projects, and outcomes. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 37(1), 32-38.
  • Haloburdo, E.P., & Thompson, M.A. (1998). A comparison of international learning experiences for baccalaureate nursing students: Developed and developing countries. Journal of Nursing Education, 37(1), 13-21.
  • Hoffa, B. (n.d.) Point:Counterpoint. The global job market: Why today’s study abroad programs are often inadequate. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2008 from /study_abroad_and_the_global_job_market_.shtml.
  • Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.) (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  • Webb, A.K. (2008). Background report on short-term missions: In consideration of the development of a Catholic Relief Services U.S.-Mexico border program. Final Report, March 14, 2008. San Antonio, TX: Catholic Relief Services Southwest Regional Office. Webb, A.K. (2008). Retrieved Dec. 19, 2008 from
  • Maps retrieved June 3, 2013.