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French and Indian War. 1754-1763. Albany Plan of Union. Held in Albany, New York, July, 1754. Purpose was to get the Iroquois on colonists side and create a mutual plan of defense for the colonies. Benjamin Franklin was behind the plan. Rejected by every colonial legislature.

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albany plan of union
Albany Plan of Union

Held in Albany, New York, July, 1754. Purpose was to get the Iroquois on colonists side and create a mutual plan of defense for the colonies. Benjamin Franklin was behind the plan. Rejected by every colonial legislature.

native americans take sides
Native Americans Take Sides

Huron and Algonquin sided with the French.

Iroquois side with British

general edward braddock bulldog
General Edward Braddock“Bulldog”

Highly respected British officer who learned his trade on the open plains of Europe. Used “linear” tactics. Wore bright red uniforms. Traveled overland from Virginia, had to cut down trees to make a road.

battle of the wilderness
Battle of the Wilderness

July 9, 1755, British column attacked 12 miles from Ft. Duquesne. Of the 1,500 men, 977 were killed , wounded, or captured. 63 of 89 officers killed. Braddock mortally wounded. Washington has two horses shot from under him. Organizes a successful retreat.

william pitt
William Pitt

Becomes Prime Minister and proclaims, “I know I can save England. And none else can.” Changed British strategy. Replace older generals with young commanders willing to adapt to fighting in America.

new young generals
New Young Generals

Jeffery Amherst

John Forbes

british officers
British Officers

James Wolfe

Charles Saunders

new strategy
New Strategy

“Cut St. Lawrence Supply Line”. July 26, 1758 Amherst Captures Louisbourg. Supplies to interior are cut. Ft. Duquesne is abandoned. Forbes occupies without a strugge.

quebec 1759
Quebec, 1759

Located on high bluff above St. Lawrence river, key to Canada. Wolfe, Saunders, begin siege June 27. September 12, 4,000 British troops scale the cliffs behind the fort, assemble on the “Plains of Abraham”. Wolfe and French commander are both killed in the ensuing battle. Quebec falls.

montreal
Montreal

September 8, 1760, Amherst captures Montreal. Fighting ends in North America.

treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris

February 8, 1763, treaty ending war is signed in Paris. Britain gets all French claims in North America except New Orleans, two islands off Newfoundland, and ywo sugar islands in the Caribbean.