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French and Indian War. By: Ms. Astle. Europe Claims America. Britain and France own most of North America. Russia owns Alaska and Spain owns Florida and parts of the Southwest. Trouble in the Ohio Valley.

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europe claims america
Europe Claims America
  • Britain and France own most of North America.
  • Russia owns Alaska and Spain owns Florida and parts of the Southwest.
trouble in the ohio valley
Trouble in the Ohio Valley
  • Clash over territory between France and Great Britain began in the Ohio Valley. They both claim it as theirs.
  • 1740’s British fur traders went into Ohio country and built a fort called Pickawillany.
  • The French quickly attacked the fort and drove British traders out of Ohio.
trouble in the ohio valley1
Trouble in the Ohio Valley
  • The French build a string of forts along the rivers of the Upper Ohio valley and closer to British colonies.
  • French traders and British colonies knew Native American help would make a difference in their struggle for North America and the outcome of the war.
trouble in the ohio valley2
Trouble in the Ohio Valley
  • The side the received the best trade terms from Native Americans and the most help in the war would probably win the contest for control of North America.
  • Native Americans were forced to choose a side.
  • The most powerful group of Natives in the east were the Iroquois Confederacy. They traded with both the French and British and played them against each other.
  • The French gain most Indians due to their good relationship with them and the their interest in mainly furs not land.
  • Great Britain gains the powerful Iroquois due to pressure and trading rights.
first steps toward war
First Steps Toward War
  • Virginians had plans for settling the Ohio Valley.
  • The Governor of Virginia sent 21 year old George Washington into Ohio to tell the French they were trespassing on land claimed by Great Britain and demand they leave.
  • The French refuse to leave.
  • Washington is sent back into Ohio with 150 militia to build a fort near what is now Pittsburg.
  • When Washington arrived he found the French already building Ft. Duquesne at the same spot.
first steps toward war1
First Steps Toward War
  • Washington quickly built Ft. Necessity and attacked a French scouting party near Great Meadows. 10 French soldiers were killed.
  • Ft. Necessity was quickly surrounded by the French and everyone was captured. They eventually are released and return to Virginia.
first steps toward war2
First Steps Toward War
  • The colonies gather to create a unified plan of action to defend against the French.
  • The Albany Plan of Union—written by Ben Franklin, is presented.
    • One General government for 11 of the colonies.
    • Elected legislature would govern the colonies and would have power to collect taxes, raise troops, and regulate trade.
  • In the end the colonial assemblies reject the plan since each colony wanted to make their own military decisions.
fighting the war
Fighting the War
  • The fighting between France and Britain was part of a larger conflict being fought in Europe and Asia for control of world trade and power on the seas.
  • Fighting broke out in the late 1750’s and early 1760’s.
  • French won early battles due to alliances with Native Americans. They built well armed forts and controlled large areas of land from the St. Lawrence River to New Orleans.
fighting the war1
Fighting the War
  • The war was first fought by colonists with little help from Great Britain.
  • In the fall of 1754 Britain appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of British forces in America and sent him to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley.
  • He marched with 1,400 redcoats to attack Ft. Duquesne, with George Washington serving as one of his aides.
  • Washington warned Braddock that the style of marching—lined up in rows and columns made them easy targets, but Braddock ignored his advice.
fighting the war2
Fighting the War
  • July 9, 1755, they were attacked by hidden French and Native American forces. The British were confused and didn’t know what to do. Braddock was killed and the British had 1000 causalities. Washington led the survivors back to Virginia.
  • Fighting in America helped start a new war in Europe called the Seven Years War.
fighting the war3
Fighting the War
  • The French continue to do well and continue to take towns and forts.
  • William Pitt takes control and oversaw the war effort from London.
  • Pitt decided Great Britain would pay for supplies needed in the war and ran up an enormous debt. After the war Britain raised the colonists taxes to help pay for the debt.
fighting the war4
Fighting the War
  • Pitt sent British troops to North America to conquer French Canada.
  • 1759 brought many British victories.
  • Quebec—the capital of New France, was thought to be impossible to attack where it sat on high cliffs.
fighting the war5
Fighting the War
  • James Wolfe’s scouts found a poorly guarded path up the back of the cliff and led troops to attack Quebec. The British took control of Quebec and cut off French supplies and weakened New France.
  • 1760 the British capture Montreal—this ends French influence in North America and the war.
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • 1763—The British and French officially end the war by signing the Treaty of Paris.
  • Britain took over most of France’s North American Territory.
  • France was permitted to keep some islands in the West Indies.
  • The French were forced to give up Canada and most of its land east of the Mississippi river to Great Britain.
treaty of paris1
Treaty of Paris
  • Spain—who were French allies—were forced to give up Florida to Britain.
  • To repay Spain for its loss France transferred the Louisiana Territory, including New Orleans, to Spain.
  • North America is now divided between Britain and Spain.
trouble on the frontier
Trouble on the Frontier
  • Native Americans regarded the British as enemies even though they traded with them.
  • Britain raised prices of their goods and refused to pay Natives for the use of their land.
  • British settlers began moving into the valleys of Western Pennsylvania.
trouble of the frontier
Trouble of the Frontier
  • Pontiac—chief of an Ottawa village—knew the British threatened Native American way of life.
  • Pontiac wanted to join Native American groups to fight the British.
  • He put together an alliance and attacked British forts at Detroit and others. He captured most of Britain’s outposts in the Great Lakes region.
trouble on the frontier1
Trouble on the Frontier
  • Native Americans killed settlers along the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers in a series of raids called Pontiac’s War.
  • The war ended August 1765 after British troops defeated Pontiacs allies the Shawnee and Delaware.
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
  • To prevent more fighting Britain called a halt to settlers’ westward expansion.
  • King George III declared the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western boundary for the colonies.
  • Colonists were furious England ignored their land claims.
  • The Proclamation brought friction between Britain and the colonies.
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