The Rise of Fascism. Essential Question. What is fascism, and why was it successful in Europe?. What is Fascism?. Main Characteristics. Roots of Fascism. Several earlier European ideas helped prepare the way for the rise of fascism Anti-Semitism – Hatred of the Jews
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Essential Question • What is fascism, and why was it successful in Europe?
What is Fascism? Main Characteristics
Roots of Fascism • Several earlier European ideas helped prepare the way for the rise of fascism • Anti-Semitism – Hatred of the Jews • Jews often faced prejudice & persecution • Beliefs & customs made them easy targets • Late 1800s – Blamed for disruptions caused by rapid industrialization
Roots of Fascism • Racism – Contempt for people of other races • Strengthened by overseas imperialism & spirit of nationalism • Social Darwinism • Racism & anti-Semitism were made respectable by applying Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution • Believed all human groups competed for survival, & stronger groups had right to succeed over weaker groups
The Old Order Collapses • Germany • Kaiser Wilhelm II replaced by weak Weimar Republic • Upper middle class opposed the change • Wanted to give all power to single leader, & feared socialists might follow Soviet path • Weimar Republic blamed for accepting Treaty of Versailles
The Old Order Collapses • U.S.S.R. • Soviet Communists showed how to build totalitarian state, which controlled all aspects of life • Joseph Stalin replaced Lenin, & quickly eliminated rivals • Opponents to Stalin’s ideas sent to prison • Europeans feared communism would spread, which led to support of extreme anti-communist leaders Mussolini & Hitler
The Old Order Collapses • Italy • Communism grew in Italy after WWI • Tired of strikes, & were ready for strong leader • Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took advantage of fear of revolution & desire for national glory to take power
Rise of Nazi Dictatorship in Germany • Weimar Republic Collapses • Stability in Germany ended when Great Depression began • 6,000,000 Germans lost jobs • Middle class turned to radical solutions offered by Communists & Nazi Party
Rise of Nazi Dictatorship in Germany • Rise of Nazi (National Socialist) Party • Hitler outlined radical ideas in Mein Kampf (My Struggle) • Important Nazi Belief – Fanatical loyalty to “Führer,” or leader, Adolf Hitler.
The Nazis come to Power • Built power with private army • Support grew when Great Depression reached Germany • Hitler was appointed chief minister in 1933 • Acted quickly to secure complete control • Determined to bring down republic & establish dictatorial rule • Use of chaos & violence led to Martial Law • Took advantage of emergency rule & became absolute dictator
Germany Under Nazi Control • Nazi Party took over every aspect of German life