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Hitler & Mussolini. The Rise of fascism. Fascism. New political movement Emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader Goal – revive economy, punish those responsible for difficult times, and restore national pride

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  • New political movement
  • Emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader
  • Goal – revive economy, punish those responsible for difficult times, and restore national pride
  • Typically wore uniforms of a certain color, used special salutes, and held mass rallies
how does fascism come to italy
How does Fascism come to Italy?
  • Bitter disappointment over loss of territories at the Paris Peace Conference
  • Rising inflation and unemployment
  • Feared a Communist revolution
benito mussolini
Benito Mussolini
  • Politician
  • Founded Fascist Party in 1919
    • Black Shirts
  • Il Duce – after demands to King Victor Emmanuel III
  • Abolished democracy
  • Outlawed all political parties
  • Censorship
  • Banned strikes
  • Took control of economy
  • Became the model for Fascists in other countries
    • Stalin & Hitler
hitler takes control in germany
Hitler Takes Control in Germany
  • Born in Austria
  • Fought in WWI
  • Joined the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)
  • Formed the German brand of Fascism – Nazism
    • The fascist policies of the Nazi Party, based on totalitarianism, a belief in racial superiority, and state control of industry
hitler the nazi party
Hitler & the Nazi Party
  • Adopt the swastika symbol
  • Militia called Brownshirts
  • Leader of the Nazi Party – der Führer
  • Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome – wanted to seize power in Munich
    • Failed! Tried for treason and sent to prison
  • Wrote Mein Kampf(My Struggle) while in prison
mein kampf
Mein Kampf
  • Outlined Hitler’s goals and beliefs for Germany
  • Became the blueprint for the Nazis
  • Aryans (blond and blue-eyed) were the “master race”
    • Jews, Slavs, Gypsies were inferior
  • Hated the Treaty of Versailles!
  • Vowed to regain lands taken from Germany
hitler becomes chancellor
Hitler Becomes Chancellor
  • Largest political party by 1932
  • 1933 – named Chancellor by German President
  • Soon demanded absolute control
  • Germany became a totalitarian state
  • Banned all other political parties
  • Elite protection squad – SS – black uniformed unit
    • Loyal only to Hitler
  • Gestapo – Nazi secret police
  • Gestapo & SS forced Germans into total obedience

By naming Hitler as Reichschancellor you have delivered up our holy Fatherland to one of the greatest [rabblerousers] of all time. I solemnly [predict] that this accursed man will plunge our Reich into the abyss and bring our nation into inconceivably misery.

General Erich Ludendorff, Feb. 1, 1933

hitler takes total control
Hitler Takes Total Control
  • Command of economy
  • Laws banned strikes
  • Dissolved independent labor unions
  • Government controlled labor and businesses
  • How does Hitler get unemployment rate from 6 million to 1.5 million?
    • Built highways
    • Manufactured weapons
    • Constructed factories
    • Served in military
hitler uses propaganda
Hitler Uses Propaganda
  • Press, radio, literature, painting, and film
  • Burned books
  • Churches forbidden to criticize the Nazi Party
  • Hitler Youth (boys group)
  • League of German Girls
  • Hugely influenced by Social Darwinism
anti semitism
  • Hatred of Jews – major belief of the Nazi ideology
  • Used Jews as scapegoats for Germany’s troubles
  • Kristallnacht – Nov. 9, 1938 – Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and on the streets
    • Night of Broken Glass
  • Began the process of eliminating the Jews from German life