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Rise of Italian Fascism. Il Duc é and Italy, 1919-1939. Origins of Italian Fascism. Problems of WWI: irredenta , inflation, ideology Fear of Communism: braccianti , strikes Mussolini = the answer. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945). Grew up in red zone of Emilia-Romagna

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rise of italian fascism
Rise of Italian Fascism
  • Il Ducé and Italy, 1919-1939
origins of italian fascism
Origins of Italian Fascism
  • Problems of WWI: irredenta, inflation, ideology
  • Fear of Communism: braccianti, strikes
  • Mussolini = the answer
benito mussolini 1883 1945
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
  • Grew up in red zone of Emilia-Romagna
  • Named after Juarez, grew up a socialist
  • Editor of Avanti
  • Nationalist and supported Italy’s intervention in WWI
  • Fought in WWI
  • Complete the “Risorgimento”
  • Modernize Italy
  • Formed paramilitary groups: squadristi into fasci to fight strikers
  • His fasci sacked the Avanti offices
  • Mussolini still harbored some socialist views.
gaining popularity
Gaining Popularity
  • Strict party discipline
  • No. 1 enemy was Bolshevism
  • Acquire political power for Fascist Party
  • Glorification of his own military prowess
  • Corporatism
  • Futurism in the Arts
  • Refused to serve as a cabinet member in existing government
march on rome 29 oct 1922
March on Rome (29 Oct. 1922)
  • 300,000 Fascist Party members in Spring 1922
  • Staged March on Rome with complicity of King Victor Emmanuel II. (M. took train into Rome so he could be part of march.)
  • Mussolini allowed to form government; conservatives believed they could control him.
in power
In Power
  • Murder of Giacomo Matteoti
  • 1925—given dictatorial powers
  • Enjoyed support from Big Business and Church (Lateran Accords—1929)
  • Appeared to make trains run on time—public works, Dopolavoro recreation program for workers, morale, and militarization.
  • Stresa Conference (1935) and evolving foreign policy.
  • Ethiopian Invasion (1935)
  • Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
spanish civil war
Spanish Civil War
  • tensions between industrial democratic peoples and supporters of agrarian feudalism
  • regional independence movements (especially in Catalonia and Basque territory) vs. nationalism
  • dispute over the role of the Church
spanish civil war9
Spanish Civil War
  • 1931 – monarchy fails to put down a revolt in Morocco  people revolt because they perceive the government to be weak
  • a republic is established
  • the republican government separates church and state – very controversial
  • right and left camps
    • workers were upset that the government was not more radical so they rioted 
    • right wing reaction, esp. from Spanish fascists known as the Falange 
    • left wing groups banded together in a Popular Front movement
    • Popular Front wins control of the government (1936)
spanish civil war10
Spanish Civil War
  • Popular Front reforms
    • divide up some large estates
    • force industrialists to take back workers who had been dismissed for striking
    • close Catholic schools
  • these reforms lead the army to attempt a coup (1936)
    • Mussolini had been secretly encouraging this
    • July 12 - a monarchist leader is murdered by a republican
    • July 17 – army revolts saying that the government can’t guarantee safety and security
spanish civil war12
Spanish Civil War
  • the war should have ended quickly
  • prolonged, in part, by
    • Fascist and Nazi support of the Nationalists
    • Communist support of the Loyalists
condor legion
Condor Legion
  • Hitler sent his famous “Condor Legion”
  • a group of skilled pilots with new planes that were skilled at dive bombing

over Guernica (at right)

atrocities on both sides
Atrocities on Both Sides

Loyalists murder priests and nuns

rome berlin axis oct 1936
Rome-Berlin Axis, Oct. 1936
  • “Rome and Berlin to be points on an axis around which the rest of events in Europe will turn.”
  • Mussolini, who had opposed earlier threat of Anschluss, supported Hitler’s 1938 political unification with Austria.