Aquatic Exercise &amp; Special Populations

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# Aquatic Exercise &amp; Special Populations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Aquatic Exercise &amp; Special Populations. By Kris Hinnerichs. Where we’re going…. Hydrodynamics Aquatic Exercise Benefits of Aquatic Exercise Special Populations Program Design. Hydrodynamics. Archimedes’ Principle Specific Gravity Movement in Water Newton’s Laws

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### Aquatic Exercise & Special Populations

By Kris

Hinnerichs

Where we’re going…
• Hydrodynamics
• Aquatic Exercise
• Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
• Special Populations
• Program Design
Hydrodynamics
• Archimedes’ Principle
• Specific Gravity
• Movement in Water
• Newton’s Laws
• Conservation of Momentum
Archimedes’ Principle
• A body in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced
Application of Archimedes’ Principle
• People weight very little in water
• Most of our energy is put into moving in the water and very little is used to “carry” ourselves
• This is especially valuable for those who have difficulties moving around on land
Specific Gravity
• The ratio of weight of a body to the weight of the water it displaces.
Specific Gravity
• Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.0
• Specific gravity < 1.0 will float
• Specific gravity > 1.0 will sink
• Muscle
• Bone
• Children and the elderly tend to have less muscles and more fat
• Young adults tend to have more muscle
Form Drag
• Resistance related to the object’s shape and profile to the water
• Tight, narrow shapes have less form drag
• Broad, wide shapes have more form drag
Wave Drag
• Resistance caused by water turbulence
• Directly proportional to swimming speed
• The more activity in the water, the more turbulence and wave drag
Newton’s Laws
• Law of Inertia--force is needed to
• move a body at rest,
• stop a body in motion, or
• change the direction of a moving body
• Static inertia is the tendency of a body at rest to stay at rest
• Dynamic inertia is the tendency of a moving body to keep moving
Conservation of Momentum
• Circular patterns are more effective than linear patterns
• Back-and-forth linear movements require force to stop moving in one direction and more force to start moving in another direction
• Abrupt changes of linear motion may throw your body out of alignment, requiring more force to overcome the increased drag
Aquatic Exercise
• Factors that affect your workout
• Bouyancy and water depth
• Resistance
• Speed of movement
• Type of movement
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
• Psychosocial
• Enhance physical fitness
• Assist with weight management
• Improve motor function
• Social
• Peer-group interaction
• Normalization of inclusion
• safety
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
• Psychological
• Psychological growth
• Improvement of well-being and confidence
• Experience success
• Enhance self-image
• Have fun
• Independent mobility
• About 30 mill. people in the US are 65 and older
• Exercise is key for good health and independent living
• Achieve enriched quality of life
• Primary goals
• reach and maintain a level of fitness,
• Improve one’s physical condition
• Delay onset of chronic disease
• Water at least 83* F
• Less activity than that for a younger group
• Explain safety features before you begin
• Lifeguard location
• Pool layout
• Use RPE instead of HR
• Give permission and suggestions for modifications
Pregnancy—benefits
• Reduces gravity’s pull on baby
• Helps prevent hyperlordosis
• Decreases chance of overheating
• Hydrostatic pressure helps prevent edema
Pregnancy—guidelines
• Water between 78 and 84* F
• Emphasize proper hydration
• Guidelines for exercise
• Contraindications for exercise
• Careful evaluation
Obesity—benefits
• Reduces the effect of gravity
• Decreases risk factors for heart disease
• Hydrostatic pressure assist venous return
• Easier to stick with the program
• Cool environment
• Comfortable
• Relaxing
• Beneficial
Obesity—guidelines
• Limb speed is important to overcome buoyancy
• Deep water walking is a great place to start
• Give non-rebound options
• Emphasize safety and form
Arthritis—benefits
• Osteoarthritis—degenerative changes in the joints
• Rheumatoid arthritis—chronic, destructive disease characterized by joint inflammation
• Decrease pain
• Increase ROM
• Maintain joint mobility
Arthritis—guidelines
• Don’t exercise when joint is “hot”
• Exercise later in the day
• Spend twice as long on warm-up
• Avoid hard stretches
• Gently move every joint in every possible direction
• Eliminate bouncing
• Ideal water temp. is 86-95* F
Low Back Pain—benefits
• Water decreases compression forces on the spine and other joints
• It is easier to move in the water than on land
Low Back Pain—guidelines
• Emphasize proper posture
• Neutral spine, stand tall
• Eliminate bouncing
• Strengthen abdominals
• Emphasize core stability
• Immediately stop any exercise that causes pain
• Wear cushioned shoes
• Minimize hip flexor work, especially kickboards
Program Design
• All general land rules and guidelines apply to aquatic exercise
• Warm-up
• Stretch
• Cardio
• Cool down
• Stretch
• Emphasize proper form and execution at all times
• Use the FIT principle