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Aquatic Biomes. Marine Ocean Estuary Fresh Water Rivers and Streams ( Lotic ) Lakes and Ponds ( Lentic ). Aquatic Biomes. Oceans. Continental Shelf – the portion of the continental plate that lies submerged under the ocean. Usually has a gentle slope

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aquatic biomes2
Marine

Ocean

Estuary

Fresh Water

Rivers and Streams (Lotic)

Lakes and Ponds (Lentic)

Aquatic Biomes
oceans
Oceans
  • Continental Shelf – the portion of the continental plate that lies submerged under the ocean.
    • Usually has a gentle slope
    • Width can vary from a few to ten kilometers
  • Continental Slope – that area that drops from the continental shelf to the full depth of the ocean floor.
slide4

Oceans

Oceanic zone – any portion of the ocean beyond the continental shelf.

Neritic zone – section of ocean that lies over the continental shelf.

Littoral zone – shoreline between the high and low tide marks.

slide5

Oceans

Photic Zone – area of water that sunlight penetrates

Aphotic zone – area of water that sunlight does not penetrate

oceans6
Oceans

Thermocline – vertical area where temperature abruptly changes; restricts the mixing of upper and lower water masses.

oceans7
Oceans
  • Salinity averages 35 ppt (full strength sea water).
    • Due to high concentrations of sodium and chloride
  • Ocean is more than salt and water, but most ocean waters are very poor in nutrients
    • Phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, iron
  • Oceans cover ~71% of Earth, but only account for 50% of the Earth’s primary production.
    • Biological deserts not limited by water, but by nutrients
    • Unlike terrestrial biomes, production is not higher at equator and lower at the tropics –respond to nutrient concentrations like upwellings.
oceans8
Oceans
  • Coastal regions are much more productive than non-coastal areas.
    • Rich nutrient input from coastal rivers
    • Most of the worlds great fisheries come from the continental shelf
    • Too many nutrients can lead to algal blooms, which may deoxygenate the water (eutrophication)
some fish life history
Some Fish Life History
  • Anadromous – fish that spend their adult life in salt water but spawn in freshwater
    • Salmon, striped bass, American shad
  • Catadromous – fish that spend their adult life in freshwater but spawn in saltwater
    • American eel
ocean benthic zone
Ocean Benthic Zone
  • Benthic zone is the ocean bottom
    • a thick blanket of mud that consists of fine particles that have settled from the overlying water and accumulated over millions of years.
  • Scientists originally thought that life could not exist in the benthic zone.
    • Too much pressure, too dark, too cold, lack of food
  • We now know that there is a lot of life down there.
slide12

Chemoautotrophic Organisms

  • Photosynthetic organisms are labeled as autotrophs, specifically phototrophs.
  • Organisms that are able to harvest energy from inorganic compounds without photosynthesis are called chemoautotrophs.
    • Usually sulfur-oxidizing (harvesting energy rich electrons from sulfur compounds) organisms
slide13

Colorful crab perched on top of a large tubeworm cluster at GC 354, depth 532 m. This community was first discovered on this MMS/LSU subdive, August 24, 2000

Chemosynthetic Communities

Organisms use organic material seeping from the ocean floor as an energy source

http://www.gomr.mms.gov/homepg/regulate/environ/chemo/chemo.html

slide14

Symbiotic Relationships

  • Consumer organisms found in chemosynthetic communities rely on a symbiotic relationship with chemoautotrophic bacteria.
  • Consumer organisms must take up inorganic carbon (CO2) and sulfides and get rid of the bacterial waste.
  • The bacteria are able to capture energy (oxidize) from the sulfides to reduce carbon dioxide (primary production).
    • Consumers then absorb nutrients from the bacteria!
  • Consumer organisms do not have a mouth or gut!
estuaries
Estuaries
  • Where the river meets the sea
    • Sometimes classified freshwater, sometimes classified marine
  • Most productive biome on Earth
  • Support a diverse fauna including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl.
  • Serve as nursery habitat for many organisms.
marsh types
Marsh Types
  • Fresh water marsh salinity < 1.0 ppt.
    • Plants are not salt tolerant and include maidencane, bulltongue, alligatorweed, cattails, and spikerush
  • Intermediate marsh salinity averages 3.3 ppt.
    • Plants are slightly salt tolerant and include spikerush, three-corner grass, arrowhead, cordgrass, wiregrass, roseau cane, and deer pea
  • Brackish marsh salinity averages about 8 ppt.
    • typically dominated by cordgrass or wiregrass
  • Salt marsh salinity averages about 16 ppt.
    • oyster grass is common, but few other plant species can survive
slide17

Freshwater Marsh Brackish Marsh

Intermediate Marsh Salt Marsh

rivers and streams
Rivers and Streams
  • Generally represent the excess of precipitation on land areas over evaporation from them.
    • Precipitation that falls is either evaporated, transpirated, enters the ground water supply, or flows down rivers
  • Flow is down-hill and varies seasonally
    • Related to rainfall and ice/snow melt
  • Beginning of a river = the source and the end of a river = the mouth
  • Discharge - volume of water passing a given point during a period of time
    • Channel Width X Depth X Velocity
rivers and streams19
Rivers and Streams
  • Flow velocity is important in determining abiotic and biotic components.
    • Flow related to slope and precipitation
    • Sediment type, current strength
    • Only certain organisms can withstand strong flow
    • The faster the flow, the more material can be transported in the water
  • Materials are transported by running water in three principal states
    • Dissolved matter
    • Suspended solids
    • Bed load
stream order

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

2

3

Stream Order – Strahler Method

Stream Order

Used to classify a stream in relation to tributaries, drainage area, total length, and age of water.

1  1 = 2

1  2 = 2

2  2 = 3

1  3 = 3

2  3 = 3

3  3 = 4

Mississippi River is classified as a 10th or 12th order stream.

Headwater stream classification matters

slide23

You will be required to draw a map of the major rivers of the Mississippi River Basin as part of exam 1.

slide24

Flow

Mississippi River (Main Stem)

Atchafalaya River (Distributary)

Distributary – A smaller channel that takes water away from the main stem river.

slide25

River Channel

Deep Holes

Sand Bars

slide27

Lakes and Ponds

Ponds – light can reach the entire bottom

Lakes – light can not reach some parts of the bottom

slide28

Lake Overturn

22˚

20˚

Epilimnion

18˚

Hypolimnion

4˚C

4˚C

Thermocline

Summer

Fall overturn

4˚C

4˚C

Winter

Spring overturn

High

Medium

Low

Dissolved O2 concentration