Jemmy Madison’s War The War of 1812
Focus Question: Identify three reasons nations have used to declare war on another nation. Which reason is most valid?
Tensions mounted in the Atlantic World • Napoleonic Wars taxed the United States • Both Britain and France involved the nation • Both seized American shipping • Britain impressed American sailors • Little seemed to work
Failure of the Embargo • Jefferson’s policies reflected his worldview • Felt that cutting away American food would force change • Failed entirely • Britain and France did not depend on American food • Devastated the American economy
Madison Administration • Attempted “peaceable coercion” of Britain and France • Lifted embargo, but set up a Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 • Set embargo only on Britain and France • Hampered U.S. trade • Sponsored American manufacturing
Rivalry turned to Britain • Orders in Council (1807) • Set up blockades of France • Impressment of U.S. sailors • Chesapeake Incident • Could U.S. maintain its sovereignty?
Indian Troubles • Tecumseh and the Prophet looked to form a Northwestern confederacy • Shawnee leadership • Composed of Great Lakes Natives • Defeated at Tippecanoe in 1811 • Sparked greater Indian War in the Great Lakes • Some indication of British guns among the Shawnee
Election of the War Hawks • Young generation of Congressional leaders • Saw Britain as insulting the U.S. • Looked to prove themselves • Soon took leadership in Congress
War of 1812 • Madison sought a declaration of war • Reaction of British policies • Saw a chance to unify the nation • Saw a chance to capture Canada • Orders in Council repealed two days before war was declared
Mixed results • U.S. saw some early naval victories • Invasion of Canada failed disastrously • U.S. unprepared for war • Militia did not perform as expected • Demonstrated a failure of Jeffersonian policies • Widespread discontent • Federalists opposed to the war • Hartford Convention of 1814
War against Native Americans • U.S. forces performed well against Native Americans • Defeated the Creek at Horseshoe Bend • Native power broken in the Southwest • Tecumseh killed at the Battle of the Thames • Great Lakes confederacy collapsed
Treaty of Ghent Peace signed on December 24, 1814 Essentially an armistice Status quo ante bellum Senate approved the treaty in February 1815
Battle of New Orleans American victory on January 8, 1815 U.S. troops under Andrew Jackson defeated British regulars Signature victory for the U.S. Led many to believe we won the war
Results of the War of 1812 Sparked unity within the U.S. Federalist opposition led to the party’s collapse “Second American Revolution” Led to a rapproachement with Britain Future boundary disputes put to mediation