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South Carolina Social Studies Standards PowerPoint Presentation
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South Carolina Social Studies Standards

South Carolina Social Studies Standards

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South Carolina Social Studies Standards

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  1. Jemmy, Jehu Jones and the African AmericanExperience in Colonial South CarolinaLarry D. WatsonAssociate Professor of HistorySouth Carolina State UniversityAdjunct Faculty, University of South Carolina

  2. South Carolina Social Studies Standards 8-1.4 Explain the growth of the African American population during the colonial period and the significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g., Gullah) and economy of South Carolina, including the origins of African American slaves, the growth of the slave trade, the impact of population imbalance between African and European Americans, and the Stono Rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population. 3-4.1 Compare the conditions of daily life for various classes of people in South Carolina, including the elite, the middle class, the lower class, the independent farmers, and the free and the enslaved African Americans.

  3. South Carolina Social Studies Standards 4-2.7 Explain how conflicts and cooperation among the Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans influenced colonial events including the French and Indian Wars, slave revolts, Native American wars, and trade. 4-3.6 Compare the daily life and roles of diverse groups of Americans during and after the Revolutionary War, including roles taken by women and African Americans such as Martha Washington, Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley (Molly Pitcher), Abigail Adams, Crispus Attucks, and Peter Salem. (H, P)

  4. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina • Slavery arrived in SC with the first settlers in 1670 • By 1695, the African population numbered approximately 2,000 while the white population was somewhere between 2 and 4, 000 • Some early concern with security • In 1697, Mr. Jonathan Amory was paid “out of the public money the sum of one hundred dollars, for one Negro who was yesterday condemned to be executed for a public example”

  5. Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaAfricans as a percentage of SC population

  6. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina • Several feeble attempts made to provide some system of regulation in 1686 and 1687 • In 1690, Governor Seth Sothell worked toward codification, drawing heavily from the Barbadians codes • Specific punishments were prescribed, yet enforcement was lax

  7. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina • Successful rice cultivation led to a significant increase in the African population after 1695 • Governor Archdale thus implemented a more comprehensive code in 1696 • This measure is often referred to as South Carolina’s first slave code

  8. Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaSelect slave codes • Slaves prohibited from leaving plantations without tickets • Slave quarters to be searched once every two weeks • Illegal to trade in stolen goods with slaves • Slaves barred from unregulated use of firearms • Slaves could not go unattended to Charleston on holidays • Prescribed punishment for burglary, murder, arson, robbery • Master liable for crimes committed by slaves • Conspiracy to rebel, mutiny or actual rebellion is a capital offense • Conversion to Christianity no grounds for manumission

  9. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina • Amendments made to codes in 1698, 1704, and 1708 • Among the additions were: -Requirement to import 1 white for each 6 slaves -Provisions for using slaves during periods of hostility -Provisions for freeing slaves who serviced the colony • Further amendments or re-enactments were made in 1712, 1714, 1717, 1722, and 1735 -Most important: Higher import duties on new Africans

  10. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina Although the slave codes had been in effect for many years, most Carolinians appeared Indifferent to them prompting the South Carolina Gazette to publish them so “that no one may for the future plead ignorance” (South Carolina Gazette, May 4, 1734)

  11. Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaAfrican/White Population in Colonial South Carolina

  12. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications Lieutenant Governor William Bull to the Common House in 1739: “the desertion of our slaves is a matter of such importance to this Province that I doubt not but you will readily concur in opinion with me, that the most effectual means ought to be used to discourage and prevent it for the future”

  13. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications October, 1732 over 200 Negroes gathered “on the Green” in Charleston. Having consumed too much Alcohol, a fight broke out, and “a valuable Negro belonging to Mrs Elbert’ was severely wounded” (South Carolina Gazette, October 28, 1732)

  14. Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications Other examples of public concern may be found in the following sources: • South Carolina Gazette • Journal of the Common House • South Carolina Upper House Journal • British Public Records Office • Colonial Office Papers • Journal of the Court of General Sessions • Journal of the Grand Council of South Carolina • Statutes at Large of the State of South Carolina

  15. Jemmy • Jemmy (or Jonny or Cato), slave • Alleged leader of the largest slave rebellion in the United States colonial period

  16. Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion • Started on September 9, 1739 near Stono River-about 20 miles southwest of Charleston • Sunday morning when many whites would be in church and unarmed • 20+ enslaved Africans gathered • Mostly Angolans and some Congolese

  17. Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion • Broke into a local store and acquired arms • 2 shopkeepers were killed, their heads left on front steps of store • Houses in the general vicinity were destroyed

  18. Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion • Several other whites killed as slaves moved south, sparing an innkeeper who was reputed to be a “kind” master • Though still mid-morning, the group encamped and celebrated their “freedom” • By mid-day, their numbers reached 50+ • At least one skirmish ensued with local whites, one of whom was the colonial Lt. Governor-William Bull

  19. Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion • Late Sunday evening, a major fight broke out when armed whites caught up with them and some 44 slaves and 23 additional whites were killed • Although the major part of the rebellion was put down that day, it took nearly a month to bring the slave population under “control”

  20. Jemmy-His Legacy • Demonstrated that the enslaved African community, though quite diverse, could unite in cause of freedom • Made colonial South Carolinians, who were not slave owners, painfully aware of its majority Black population • Increased the tension between Great Britain and Spain, since it was commonly believed that the Spanish in Florida encouraged black flight

  21. Jemmy- His Legacy • Convinced South Carolinians that the African population was not “docile” as many felt • Forced elected officials to enact and enforce new laws that would change slavery forever in the region and serve as a model for other southern states • The 1740 Slave Code became the model in other southern states

  22. Jemmy-His Legacy New Laws • All whites responsible for policing the African population • All white men required to carry guns • Slaves prohibited from assembling in certain numbers • Slaves prohibited from hiring themselves out

  23. Jemmy-His Legacy New Laws • White immigration encouraged • Illegal to teach slaves to read • Restrictions set on importation of Blacks directly from Africa • Although more restrictive, the 1740 code still sought to protect slave owners’ investment in slaves

  24. COLONIAL SLAVERY S. C RUNAWAY STATUTE DEFINITION: A SLAVE ABOVE THE AGE OF 16 WHO CONTINUES TO BE ABSENT FROM THE OWNER FOR A SPACE OF 20-30 DAYS AT ONE TIME

  25. COLONIAL SLAVERY S. C RUNAWAY STATUTE OFFENSEPUNISHMENT 1ST 40 LASHES 2ND BRANDED “R” (FACE) 3RD 40 LASHES & CROPPED EAR 4TH MALE: GELTED FEMALE: WHIPPING, BRANDED “R” AND CROPPING 5TH LOST OF LEG OR LIFE

  26. Free Negro-Defined JOHN H. FRANKLIN: QUASI-FREE STATUS SLIGHTLY BETTER THAN A SLAVE WORSE THAN POOREST WHITE NEITHER SLAVE NOR FREE VIEWED WITH DISTRUST AND SUSPICION PRESENCE ALWAYS A MATTER OF CONCERN

  27. POPULATION-UNITED STATES 1790 NORTH 27,000 SOUTH 33,000 _____________________________________ TOTAL 60, 000 (SLAVES 700,000)

  28. POPULATION-UNITED STATES 1820 FREE NEGROES 234,000 (SLAVES1,538,000)

  29. POPULATION-UNITED STATES 1860 NORTH 237,000 SOUTH 251,000 _________________________ TOTAL 488,000 (2% OF US POP) (SLAVES 3,954,000) (13% OF US POP)

  30. POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA 1670 • South Carolina’s free Negro community dates back to the earliest settler when it became common practice to free slaves for cause • No accurate number is known, but the various slave codes make constant reference to them

  31. POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA “Any slave who shall…keep or take one or more…enemies…shall for his reward, at the charge of the public, have his freedom…” “ An act for the enlisting of such trusty slaves as Shall be thought serviceable to this Province in time of alarms” 1708

  32. POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA 1790 FREE NEGROES 1, 801 (SLAVES107, 094)

  33. POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA 1830 FREE NEGROES 7, 7921 (SLAVES315, 401)

  34. POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA 18001850 CHARLESTON 951 3,441 (SLAVES in 1860 415, 000) 58% of State population

  35. POPULATION-SOURCES • NATURAL REPRODUCTION • OFFSPRINGS OF MIXED PARENTAGE • RUNAWAYS • SLAVES PURCHASING THEIR OWN FREEDOM • REWARDS FOR SERVICE • CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATES • PERSONAL MANUMISSIONS

  36. LIFE AS A FREE NEGRO-THE SOUTH • PROOF OF FREEDOM • COULD NOT HOLD PUBLIC OFFICE • SPONSORS REQUIREMENT • CURFEWS • BAN AGAINST ASSEMBLING

  37. QUASI FREE NEGROES MUTUAL BENEFIT ORGANIZATIONS (FOUND WHEREVER FREE NEGROES LIVED) • FREE AFRICAN SOCIETY (PHILADELPHIA) • SONS OF AFRICAN SOCIETY (BOSTON) • BROWN FELLOWSHIP SOCIETY (CHARLESTON)

  38. Jehu Jones-Free Negro (1769-1833) Born a slave in 1769 to Christopher Rogers Learned to be a tailor Purchased his freedom

  39. JEHU JONES’ CERTIFICATE OF FREEDOM

  40. JEHU JONES’ CERTIFICATE OF FREEDOM

  41. Jehu Jones’ Family Wife: Abigail Children: Ann Deas, stepdaughter Jehu, Jr. Alexander Edward

  42. Jehu Jones-Entrepreneur Set up his own tailoring business Invested in real estate in Charleston and surrounding areas Established an inn at 33 Broad Street Slave owner

  43. Jehu Jones’ Slave Owner

  44. Jehu Jones-”Pillar” of the Black Community Operated in the highest social circles Trustee for the Brown Fellowship Society

  45. Impact of Denmark Vesey • Vesey, a free Negro had purchased his freedom with money won in a street lottery • Conspiracy betrayed by other free negroes • State clamped down on free negro community