Integration of Emergency Risk Management into India’s Education system17th November 2011NaghmaFirdausNagpur
Emergency Risk Management…. • What do we understand by the term emergency risk management • What are its salient features /components • Who is responsible • Why does it play an important role in disaster management? • “Emergency risk management (ERM) is a process which involves dealing with risks to the community arising from emergency events. It is a systematic method for identifying, analysing, evaluating and treating emergency risks. Risk treatments include prevention and preparedness as well as provision for response and recovery should an emergency event occur”
Example to reflect • What perhaps could demonstrate some of the aspects of emergency risk management….. • CEMEx 2011 (Video)
Objectives of the Emergency Risk Management Exercise • Mass sensitization and public awareness on Urban Emergency Management Services (U-EMS) • Capacity enhancement of different stakeholders involved in emergency management and response • Test interagency communication, coordination and interoperability. • Assess and recommend areas for reinforcement and improvement. • Perspective plan (long term) for U-EMS in the city
Therefore Emergency Risk Management …. • Appropriate Capacity Building of different stakeholders ( in terms of awareness, knowledge building and acquisition of skills • Strengthen Interagency Coordination Communication • Strengthen Contingency Planning at different levels • Plan, prepare and rehearse to face any emergency Creation of Community Risk Resilience – The Core – It is collective responsibility
Some facts and figures as well as opinions with reference to the state of affairs in terms of safety and risk status of Our schools and academic institutions…..
971 students and 31 teachers died in the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake • 1,884 school buildings collapsed, loss of 5,950 classrooms • 11,761school buildings suffered major to minor damages, additional 36,584rooms unfit for holding instruction sessions
Kumbakonam school fire On the 23rd Dec 96 425 people died in Dabwali, Haryana. The Kumbakonam fire tragedy took life of 93 children
Some global figures • 1993: Long Beach Earthquake USA • 70 schools destroyed • 120 damaged • 41 rendered unsafe • 2003: Iran Earthquake • School collapsed; 110 children killed
Some global figures • 2005: J&K Earthquake • >8000 schools destroyed / damaged • > 17,000 school children killed • > 850 teachers killed • >20,000 suffered injuries • 2008: China Earthquake • >7000 schools destroyed • >10,000 students killed • >1,000 teachers killed • 2008: Cyclone Nargis • >3000 schools destroyed in Myanmar • >100 teachers killed
Success Stories… • Teaching DR related subjects is mandated in Mexico, New Zealand and Romania • Brazil and Venezuela undertake intensive training on DR at schools at the municipal and state levels • For Eg: After 1999 Earthquake, Turkey undertook massive training on DR for school teachers. BY 2002, 3000 teachers were trained as master trainers and certified in 32 districts. • They in turn taught 34000 teachers, 6000 personnel and 350,000 students. In the process mode, 836,000 students were empowered. Extension of the training in three other provinces, it reached to 1.5 million students
State of affairs at the Higher educational institutions in India • It took the terror attack at German Bakery, just a few miles from its gates, for authorities at the 62-year Pune University to wake up to the dangers of terror attacks. And, to the vulnerability of its students and faculty. Following the March 2010 blast, CCTV cameras have now been installed across the campus and armed guards patrol key locations within the university—both during the day and after dusk • It also took a tragedy, this time a devastating fire in its chemistry lab, for Asia’s oldest college, the 193-year-old Presidency College in Kolkata (now rechristened Presidency University) to realise how defenceless they were when faced with natural or man-made disasters.
Emergency Risk management and the Young populace in India • The role of schools and educational institutions in the community is very important and it would be befitting to call them as cradles of • the society • Children and Young people who are taught about disaster management are assets to the community at large. • They play an important part in saving lives and in protecting the members of the communities • Making DRR a part of the curriculum of primary and secondary curricula fosters awareness and better understanding about the immediate environment in which children and their families live.. • Children are a dynamic and powerful force of change and are supporters in creating awareness in the community. • They can contribute in a unique manner with energy and vision to find local solutions. • School children should be encouraged to take up tasks which make them realise their importance as necessary stakeholders in the change process.
Disaster awareness education in educational institutions -Advantages • It provides contemporary and relevant information about local environment. • It prepares for participation in both pre and post disaster activities of the affected/vulnerable community on a wider scale. • It contributes past experience with recent developments in technology to combat disaster • It helps to develop effective domain abilities for collective work as successful disaster management efforts involve an effective teamwork and spirit. • It promotes informed decision-making in the event of a disaster.
India – the Land of Challenges and opportunities • India’s Developmental milestones • India’s Developmental Challenges • India’s education system milestones • India’s education system challenges • Risk resilience and emergency preparedness in India • Paradigm shift from a relief centric mode to a proactive mode…………………….
From a policy perspective….. • Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plan document, have emphasized the need to enhance knowledge, skill and values to reduce the impact of disasters on the education sector. • National policy on Education also gives the thrust on safe and secure environment of educational institutions, not only for students but the neighborhood community must feel the belongingness with these institutions • Educational Institutions can contribute towards generation of knowledge in the area of disasters, develop expertise in specific types of disaster and impart training in different fields • National DM policy highlights the need and importance • Various academic boards of relevance have highlighted the same • -----There is thought • ------There is willingness • ---------There is realization
From a implementation perspective • We hear there are issues with implementation • There are issues with resource allocation and resource development • There are issues with monitoring, follow up and sustainability
CBSE curriculum – VIII, IX, X, XI • State education Boards- Tamil Nadu -curriculum, Orissa – Risk safety, Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Bihar- through SSA, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand • Non- formal Education – NCC, NSS, NYKS being trained Tamil nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra , Uttaranchal, Assam, Kerala , Tripura
Training of Teachers – NCERT – resource book for training teachers on DM • Karnataka – SCERT is very active • Delhi, West Bengal, Maharshtra, Gurarat, kerala , HP • North East Regional Institution of Education – seven eastern sisters
GOI – UNDP DRM Programme with the component on school safety • UNESCO’s involvement at the policy and advocacy level • UNICEF – grass root level support and demonstration of technical support/competancies • Action Aid – DRR in schools in Assam and AP-pioneered the concept of Hazard safety Cadet Corps in schools • ADRA – Work in Bihar • Aide et Action – nagapattinum • AIDMI – 350 schools, 18000 school children, , teachers , administrators, in Bihar, Gujarat, J&K rajasthan , TN • Plan India • CARITAS – Assam and Tripura • SEEDs India – more than 600 • Save the children – CLDRR
Higher Educational Institutions • IGNOU – Certificate and PG Programs • Mahatma Gandhi University – MSc in DM • University of Pune – 6 month certificate course • The Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment, New Delhi • The PRT Institute of Postgraduate Environmental Education and Research • National Civil Defense College and National Fire Engineering College – skill base training • TISS – Doctoral and PG Programmes • IITs and IIMs and some medical colleges – • Guru Gobind Singh IndraPrastha University – MBA (DM) • MSU Baroda – Certificate course • University of Mumbai Times Centre for DM- certificate courses
Gaps…….. • Primary and Secondary Education - Teaching about hazards is not enough to promote risk awareness or action on the part of children and youth. Academic earth and climate science is good, but should be taught as part of a comprehensive package with disaster prevention and preparedness (skill based) • Tertiary education – practical Insight , Hands on approach – lacking (issues with curriculum, methodology, scientific and practical temper as well as linkage with employment opportunities) • Protecting educational infrastructure - The excellent research and pilot projects focusing on school seismic risk have not been thoroughly evaluated, consolidated, or made available in a form that that can be rapidly adopted on a larger scale.
Community based risk resilience- lack of ownership and lack of integration of local indigenous knowledge • Media, communication and risk awareness – This medium needs to be appropriately utilised • Scientific knowledge and research- The main gap regarding scientific knowledge and research involves how to put a vast amount of existing knowledge to work in the real world under messy, marginally controlled conditions • Work in isolation – not much sharing and learning from good practices and lessons learned • Lack of appropriately trained cadre of DM • Issues with quality control and quality assurance • Lack of integrated and dove tailed efforts
Recommendations • From a policy perspective – requirement of national road map – which is structured and outcome based with clearly defined roles and responsibilities viz a viz stakeholders (with factors of accountability, and quality check and control imbedded) – in addition to recommendations, guidelines and guidance notes, there is a need to have specific policy on safe education. • From a implementation perspective - The effort needs integration with the administrative machinery and governance process to be sustainable and impactful (NSSP) – (Ministry of HRD) • Capacities and capabilities of DM Training institutions to be augmented • Curriculum, methodology to be revisited and appropriately addressed for improvisations • There should be constant sharing of good practices and lessons learnt by agencies involved in strengthening this sector • Both structural as well as non – structural mitigation measures must be addressed.
There needs to be standardization, quality assurance and evaluation of efforts made at the primary, secondary and tertiary education levels. • The training and education material as well as content needs to be practical oriented and user friendly. • There needs to be integration of efforts made by various agencies with the government efforts • Media needs to be involved and deployed for various purposes. • Private sector engagement - vital
National School Safety Programme - Demonstration Project Detailed Project Report Picture: Realvpm.org
National School Safety Programme - Demonstration Project Detailed Project Report