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International Relations Grand Debates. University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003 Christer Pursiainen For downloading the Power Point presentation, go to: www.kolumbus.fi/christer.pursiainen  teaching. Contents. Development of the Discipline Idealism vs. Realism

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international relations grand debates

International Relations Grand Debates

University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003

Christer Pursiainen

For downloading the Power Point presentation, go to:

www.kolumbus.fi/christer.pursiainen

 teaching

contents
Contents
  • Development of the Discipline
  • Idealism vs. Realism
  • Traditionalism vs. Scientism
  • Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism
  • Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism
1 development of the discipline
1. Development of the Discipline

Economics Strategy History Philosophy International Law

ThucydidesAquinas

16th

17th Machiavelli Grotius

18th Smith

19th MarxClausewitz Rousseau Kant

20th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy

Geography Geopolitics

WWI The birth of the discipline

1920-30s IDEALISM

WWII REALISMTraditionalism First Debate

1950s Functionalism

Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate

1960s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate

1970s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISMLIBERALISM

1980s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM

Humanities Feminism Fourth debate

1990s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM

2000s Postructuralism Developed Game theory Fifth Debate?

2 idealism vs realism
2. Idealism vs. Realism

IDEALISM:

  • WWI  How to avoid major wars
  • peaceful changes instead of changes through war
  • international law
  • League of Nations
2 idealism vs realism1
2. Idealism vs. Realism

REALISM:

  • international relations should not be studied on the basis how they should be but how they are
  • politics is governed by objective laws
  • the roots of those laws lie in the human nature
  • the laws are objective because human nature does not change in the course of times
2 idealism vs realism2
2. Idealism vs. Realism

REALISM:

  • we can distinguish between the ’economic person’, the ’religious person’, the ’moral person’, the ’political person’ etc.
  • in order to understand politics, we must study only the ’political person’
  • we should study the political actions of a statesman (as a synonym of a state)
2 idealism vs realism3
2. Idealism vs. Realism

REALISM:

  • the theory of political realism is based on the idea of a rational actor
  • we should compare the real events to this ideal, normative picture
2 idealism vs realism4
2. Idealism vs. Realism

REALISM:

  • the behaviour of a political person in social context is based on power
  • maintenance of power; strengthening of power; demonstration of power
2 idealism vs realism5
2. Idealism vs. Realism

REALISM:

  • power does not mean only physical or military power, but refers to all kind of control over the minds and actions of other individuals
  • power is important, because whatever interests or goals we have, in order to achieve them in politics this brings the desire to control the actions of others
3 traditionalism vs scientism
3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism

TRADITIONALISM:

  • Realism, historical approaches etc.
  • understanding politics requires historically based wisdom rather than data-based models or mechanistic theories
3 traditionalism vs scientism1
3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism

SCIENTISM (Behavioralism):

  • ”Scientific Study of international relations”
  • no a priori theories
  • hypothesesobservable data regularities/correlations theory/model
  • graphic or mathematic models
  • Foreign Policy Analysis (foreign policy models)
4 realism vs liberalism vs marxism
4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism

REALISM slightly revisited:

  • more ”scientific” methods, models, classifications
  • state as an actor, less focus on ’human nature’
  • realism as a theory of balance of power
4 realism vs liberalism vs marxism1
4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism

LIBERALISM:

  • ”complex interdependece”:
  • a) societies are connected not only by interstate relations but transgovernmental and transnational relations as well
4 realism vs liberalism vs marxism2
4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism

LIBERALISM:

  • b) there is no hierarchy between issue areas, i.e., military security does not dominate other issues
  • c) where complex interdependence prevails, military power is ineffective and irrelevant to resolve disagreements
  • d) international organisations important in setting the agenda and inducing coalition formation
4 realism vs liberalism vs marxism3
4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism

MARXISM:

  • theories of imperialism
  • dependency theories
  • world system theories; centre-periphery
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

NEOREALISM:

  • objective environment: anarchic structure of international system  competitive security system
  • states behave rationally according to their national interests, since those who do not will not survive
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism1
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

NEOREALISM:

  • zero-sum  states are calculating relative gaines
  • ’self-help’ system: cooperation difficult/superficial/temporary
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism2
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

NEOREALISM:

  • security dilemma is always present:
  • a) the unintended decrease in the security of others when one state increases its own security
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism3
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

NEOREALISM:

  • b) the uncertainty of present or future intentions of other states
  • c) a state feels insecure if it does not act and insecure if it does
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism4
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

NEOREALISM:

  • security dilemma is regulated by balance-of-power politics
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism5
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

INSTITUTIONALISM:

  • Subjective environment: individual security system
  • international institutions can change states’ cost-benefit calculations
  • institutions can help states to overcome some relative gain problems and therefore states are calculating also absolute gains
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism6
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

INSTITUTIONALISM:

  • though we may not completely remove the security dilemma, it can be mitigated by creating interdependence and common security regimes, norms and rules, creating reciprocal relations and positive expectations of each other’s behaviour
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism7
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

CONSTRUCTIVISM:

  • intersubjective environment: cooperative security community possible
  • agency and structure are interrelated: ”anarchy is what states make of it”
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism8
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

CONSTRUCTIVISM:

  • the security dilemma is often regulated and sometimes mitigated but it can also be resolved through changes in identities and threat perceptions
5 neorealism vs institutionalism vs constructivism9
5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

Self-understanding of the theories

C

I

NR

-only most important things, like the law of gravity does not explaing the path minimalistic theory

-explains of a leaf in wind

  • explains the same as
  • NR + more
  • explains the same as
  • NR + I + more
1 development of the discipline1
1. Development of the Discipline

Economics Strategy History Philosophy International Law

ThucydidesAquinas

16th

17th Machiavelli Grotius

18th Smith

19th Marx Clausewitz Rousseau Kant

20th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy

Geography Geopolitics

WWI The birth of the discipline

1920-30s IDEALISM

WWII REALISMTraditionalism First Debate

1950s Functionalism

Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate

1960s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate

1970s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISMLIBERALISM

1980s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM

Humanities Feminism Fourth debate

1990s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM

2000s Fifth Debate? Developed Game Theory

1 development of the discipline2
1. Development of the Discipline

Economics Strategy History Philosophy International Law

ThucydidesAquinas

16th

17th Machiavelli Grotius

18th Smith

19th MarxClausewitz Rousseau Kant

20th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy

Geography Geopolitics

WWI The birth of the discipline

1920-30s IDEALISM

WWII REALISMTraditionalism First Debate

1950s Functionalism

Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate

1960s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate

1970s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISMLIBERALISM

1980s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM

Humanities Feminism Fourth debate

1990s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM

2000s Postructuralism Developed Game theory Fifth Debate?

international relations grand debates1

International Relations Grand Debates

University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003

Christer Pursiainen

For downloading the Power Point presentation, go to:

www.kolumbus.fi/christer.pursiainen

 teaching