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Chapter 3. Hardware: Input, Processing, & Output Devices. Hardware. Hardware Any machinery (most of which uses digital circuits) that assists in the input, processing, storage, & output activities of an information system. Hardware Components (1). Central Processing Unit (CPU)

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Chapter 3


Input, Processing, & Output Devices

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  • Hardware

    Any machinery (most of which uses digital circuits) that assists in the input, processing, storage, & output activities of an information system

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Hardware Components (1)

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    A hardware component that performs computing functions utilizing the ALU, control unit, & registers

  • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

    Performs mathematical calculations & makes logical comparisons

  • Control Unit

    Sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, coordinates flow of data in/out of ALU, registers, primary & secondary storage, & various output devices

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Hardware Components (2)

  • Registers

    • High-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions & data immediately before, during, & after execution by the CPU

    • Primary Storage

    • Holds program instructions & data (a.k.a. main memory)

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Hardware Components (Figure 3.1)

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Machine Cycle

- Instruction phase

- Execution phase

Execution of an InstructionSee also Figure 3.2

  • Instruction Phase

    • Step 1: Fetch instruction

    • Step 2: Decode instruction

  • Execution Phase

    • Step 3: Execute instruction

    • Step 4: Store results

Instruction time: The time to complete the instruction phase.

Execution time: The time to complete the execution phase.

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Machine Cycle TimeSee Figure 3.3

  • Machine Cycle Time

    Time it takes to execute an instruction

  • Slow machines

    Measured in microseconds (one-millionth of a second)

  • Fast machines

    Measured in nanoseconds (one-billionth of a second) to picoseconds (one-trillionth of a second)

  • MIPS

    Millions of instructions per second.

  • Pipelining

    A CPU operation in which multiple execution phases are performed in a single machine cycle

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Clock Speed

  • Clock Speed

    Predetermined rate a CPU produces a series of electronic pulses.

  • Hertz

    One cycle or pulse per second

  • Megahertz (MHz)

    Millions of cycles per second

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  • Wordlength

    Number of bits the CPU can process at any one time

  • BIT

    Binary Digit - 0s & 1s that combine to form a “word”

  • Computer word

    What the computer processes

  • Microcode

    Predefined, elementary circuits & logical operations that the processor performs when it executes an instruction.

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Bus Line

  • Bus Line

    • Physical wiring connecting computer components

  • Bus Line Width

    • Number of bits a bus line can transfer at one time.

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Moore’s Law(Figure 3.4)

Moore’s Law

A hypothesis that statestransistor densities in a single chip will double every 18 months

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Instruction Sets

  • Complex instruction set computing (CISC)

    A computer chip design that places as many microcode instructions into the central processor as possible

  • Reduced instruction set computing (RISC)

    A computer chip design based on reducing the number of microcode instructions built into a chip to an essential set of common microcode instructions

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Eight bits together that represent a single character of data.

Bytes are stored in memory. Memory provides working storage for program instructions.

  • Storage

  • Data is represented in on/off (0/1) circuit states.

  • 1








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    Memory Characteristics & Functions(Figure 3.5)

    • Temporary & volatile: RAM - Random Access Memory

      • SRAM

      • DRAM

  • Permanent & non-volatile: ROM - Read Only Memory

    • PROM

    • EPROM

  • Cache memory(See Figure 3.6)

    High speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory.

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    • Multiprocessing

      • The simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time.

    • Coprocessor

      • Speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity.

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    Parallel Processing(Figure 3.7)

    • Parallel processing

      • A form of multiprocessing that speeds the processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time or in parallel

      • Splits task to be processed by multiple processors, then solutions are compiled/ combined to provide a result

      • e.g., uses both cached information & parallel processing via hundreds of desktop computers.

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    Secondary Storage

    Stores large amounts of data, instructions, & information more permanently than main memory.

    Devices for Secondary Storage

    • Magnetic tape

    • Magnetic disks

    • Compact Disk Read-Only

    • Memory (CD-ROM)

    • Write Once Read Many - (WORM)

    • Magneto-optical disks

    • Redundant Array of Independent / Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    • Optical disks

    • Digital Video Disks

    • Memory cards

    • Flash memory

    • Removable storage

    • See Figures 3.9, 3.10, 3.11 & 3.12

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    Access Methods & Storage Devices

    • Sequential

      • Data retrieved in the order stored.

    • Direct

      • Data retrieved without the need to read or pass other data in sequence.

    • Storage Devices

      • Sequential Access Storage Devices (SASDs)

      • Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs)

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    Input & Output Devices

    • Data entry

      The process by which human-readable data is converted into machine-readable form

    • Data input

      The process of transferring machine-readable data into the computer system

    • Source data automation

      Capturing & editing data where the data is originally created & in a form that can be directly input to a computer

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    Input Devices

    • PC input devices

    • Voice recognition devices

    • Digital computer cameras

    • Terminals

    • Scanning devices

    • Optimal data readers

    • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)

    • Point Of Sale (POS) devices

    • Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)

    • Pen input devices

    • Light pens

    • Touch sensitive screens

    • Bar code scanners

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    Output Devices

    • Display monitors

    • Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)

    • Printers & plotters

    • Computer output microfilm (COM)

    • Disks & diskettes

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    Types of Computer Systems (1)

    • Personal Computers (PCs) or Microcomputers

      • Small, relatively inexpensive

      • Desktop , laptop, or notebook

      • Different degrees of power & cost

        • Network Computers for accessing networks, especially the Internet (also known as network appliances)

        • Workstations are high-end microcomputers

    • Minicomputers

      • Size of a three drawer file cabinet plus peripherals

      • accommodates several users at one time

      • Useful for departments of large orgs. or entire mid-size orgs.

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    Types of Computer Systems (2)

    • Mainframe Computers

      • Large & powerful

      • Shared by hundreds/thousands concurrently

      • Useful for large orgs., massive transaction processing (e.g., Internet gateway, credit card authorisation)

    • Supercomputers

      • Most powerful

      • with fastest processing speeds

      • Useful for massive number crunching (e.g., simulating wind tunnel)

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    Types of Computer Systems (3)

    • Computer System Architecture

      The structure, or configuration, of the hardware components of a computersystem

    • Multimedia Computer System(See Figure 3.17)

      • Marriage of sound, animation, & digitized video

      • What is the multimedia part of the Internet commonly known as?

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    Annual Cost of PC Ownership (TCO) (See Figure 3.16)

    • Hardware 15%

    • Technical support 15%

    • Administration services 15%

    • End user operations 55%

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    Industry Standards in Common Use

    Computer standards: reference models used by various groups to establish interoperability between computer components

    • Multimedia Extension (MMX)

    • Multimedia PC Council (MPC)

    • Ultimedia Solution

    • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

    • Plug ‘n’ Play (PnP)

    • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

    • Fibre Channel

    • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

      • (PCMCIA)

    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

    • Firewire

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    • Unisys - customer service, pages 132-133

      Next Class

      Chapter Four: Software

      Case: Gap uses object-oriented programming pp. 184-185

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