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The Age of Limits. Chapter 24 Ford – Carter Pages 810-825. The Ford and Carter Years. 1974-1980. Ford’s Unusual Road to the Presidency…. Never elected to the Vice-Presidency or Presidency Only person to become President and Vice-President under the 25 th Amendment

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the age of limits

The Age of Limits

Chapter 24

Ford – Carter

Pages 810-825

ford s unusual road to the presidency
Ford’s Unusual Road to the Presidency…
  • Never elected to the Vice-Presidency or Presidency
  • Only person to become President and Vice-President under the 25th Amendment
  • Nelson Rockefeller became Vice-President under the 25th Amendment
the nixon pardon
The Nixon Pardon
  • Ford gave Nixon a full pardon for Watergate
  • Covered crimes Nixon committed or may have committed as Pres.
  • Ford wanted to spare the country a trial
  • Some Americans were outraged
  • None of Nixon’s former employees were pardoned and nearly all served prison terms
1973 opec oil embargo
1973 – OPEC – Oil Embargo
  • Inflation rose form 6% in ’73 to 10% in ’74
  • Ford started the “WIN” campaign, (Whip Inflation Now) It failed.
  • Ford urged Americans to cut back on use of oil and gas
  • He cut government spending, interests rates went up triggering the worst recession in 40 years
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Ford kept Kissinger as Sec. of State
  • Helsinki Accords – 1975
    • Legitimized Soviet drawn borders in E. Europe
    • Agreement allowing for more open exchanges of people and information
    • Milestone
    • One-sided
  • Wanted to continue to give money to aid South Vietnam, Congress refused, the South fell in 1975
    • 140,000 Vietnamese left
    • Cost to U.S. - $118 billion
    • 56,000 Am. dead and 300,000 wounded
    • U.S. lost respect
carter in the white house
Carter in the White House
  • Former peanut farmer and Gov. of Georgia
  • Promised he would never lie to the American people
  • Carter and Ford squared off over energy, inflation, and unemployment
  • Carter won by a close margin
  • He talked to the American people through FDR like “fire-side” chats by radio and TV
how did the economy change in the 1970s
How did the economy change in the 1970s?
  • Less manufacturing jobs
  • More jobs in communication, transportation, and retail
  • Greater overseas competition
  • U.S. iron and steel and clothing – plant closings and lay-offs
  • OPEC raised oil prices
carter s domestic agenda
Carter’s Domestic Agenda
  • Carter urged Americans to cut back their consumption of oil and gas
  • The National Energy Act – taxed gas guzzling cars, removed price controls on oil and gas produced in the US, and gave tax credits for development of alternative energy.
In 1979 inflation hit 11.3%, 14% by ’80.
  • Famous “malaise speech” - complained of a “crisis of spirit” in Americans.
carter and draft evaders
Carter and Draft – Evaders?
  • Wanted to end divisions in the country
  • Gave full pardons to draft evaders
  • No pardons for deserters
  • Few protested the pardons (put Vietnam behind us)
three mile island
Three-Mile Island?
  • March 1979 – nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island broke down  at risk for nuclear meltdown
  • Caused widespread fear
  • Some Americans doubted nuclear energy was safe
  • Nuclear power plants were held to stricter safety standards
carter and civil rights
Carter and Civil Rights?
  • Appointed more women and African Americans to his administration than any other previous administration
  • Appointed Andrew Young as US Ambassador to the UN
civil rights
Civil Rights….
  • Courts: Milliken v. Bradley – 1974
    • Desegregation could not require across district bussing
    • Reinforced “White Flight”
    • Pitted poor whites and blacks against each other
bakke v board of regents
Bakke v. Board of Regents
  • 1978 – Allan Bakke denied admission to U. of Cal. – Davis Medical School
  • Sued – said his scores were better than the minorities who were accepted
  • Supreme Court – preference for admission can not be given to any group
  • Racial factors may be used in overall admissions process
  • Bakke admitted – “reverse discrimination”
carter s foreign policy
Carter’s Foreign Policy
  • Based upon human rights
  • Publicly criticized the Soviet Union and South Africa
  • Most countries that violated human rights no longer received U.S. foreign aid
  • Panama Canal Treaty – gave canal back to Panama on December 31, 1999
camp david pace accords
Camp David Pace Accords
  • Carter invited Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) to Camp David
  • 13 days – negotiation
  • Two agreements
    • Conditions for general peace talks
    • Conditions for peace between Egypt and Israel
    • 1979 – peace treaty signed
carter and soviet union
Carter and Soviet Union?
  • 1979 attempted to improve on SALT I by negotiating SALT II – impose additional limits on certain nuclear weapons
  • Conservative Republicans and Democrats opposed SALT II – died in the Senate
carter and china
Carter and China?
  • Formally recognized the People’s Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of China
  • 1979 – trade and cultural contacts increased
  • Hotbed of Islamic fundamentalism
  • The government backed by S. U.
  • S. U. invaded to protect government against fundamentalists
  • Carter protested  suspended grain and high-tech sales to Soviets
  • Boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow
iranian hostage crisis
Iranian Hostage Crisis?
  • Shah of Iran a strong ally of the U.S.
  • 1978 Shah was overthrown by Islamic fundamentalists – Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Carter allowed the Shah to enter the U.S. for cancer treatment
  • Nov. 4, 1979 Khomeini’s followers seized U.S. embassy in Tehran – 52 hostages
  • Hostages released 444 days later – January 20, 1981