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The Ecology of Language Learning & Classroom Research Leo van Lier Monterey Institute of International Studies lvanlier@miis.edu. UNTELE, Compiègne March 19, 2004. Perception/Action: Affordance. Emergence: Grammaring. e. Social Interaction. Quality. Overview.

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The Ecology of Language Learning & Classroom ResearchLeo van LierMonterey Institute of International Studieslvanlier@miis.edu

UNTELE, Compiègne

March 19, 2004

slide2

Perception/Action: Affordance

Emergence: Grammaring

e

Social Interaction

Quality

overview
Overview
  • Perception and action in semiotic contexts
  • The emergence of language abilities in meaningful activity
  • The dynamics of social interaction
  • The quality of educational experience
perception
Perception
  • Picture or landscape?
  • Static observer or dynamic agent?
  • Representation or pickup?
  • Direct or indirect?
  • Immediate or mediated?
what are affordances
What are affordances?
  • Affordances are relations of possibility between animals and their environments (Neisser, 1987, p. 21).
what are affordances1
What are affordances?
  • Affordances consist in the opportunities for interaction that things in the environment possess relative to the sensorimotor capacities of the animal (Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1991, p. 203).
what are affordances2
What are affordances?
  • [The linguistic world]… is full of demands and requirements, opportunities and limitations, rejections and invitations, enablements and constraints - in short, affordances (Shotter and Newson 1982:34)
what are affordances3
What are affordances?
  • We could benefit from considering participants' orientations to the production and recognition of structural patterns in talk as social affordances: immediately recognizable projections, predictions and perceived consequences of making this (and not that) utterance at any given time (Forrester, 1999, p. 88).
gibson s affordance
Gibson’s affordance
  • An affordance refers to the fit between an animal’s capabilities and the environmental supports and opportunities (both good and bad) that make possible a given activity (Gibson & Pick, 2000, p. 15).
  • According to Gibson, to perceive the world is to co-perceive oneself. This means that when we perceive something, we perceive it as it relates to us.
slide10

Environment

(meaning potential)

Action

affordance

Perception

Interpretation

Agent,

Self (abilities,

interests)

overview1
Overview
  • Perception and action in semiotic contexts
  • The emergence of language abilities in meaningful activity
  • The dynamics of social interaction
  • The quality of educational experience
emergence
Emergence
  • Emergence happens when relatively simple organisms or elements reorganize themselves into more complex, more intelligent systems. In addition, these systems appear to be able to adapt to changing conditions whereas the simpler forms that compose them have no such adaptive abilities (van Lier, in press; Johnson, 2001).
emergence1
Emergence

Inthe emergentist perspective, grammar is not a prerequisite of communication, rather it is a byproduct of communication (Hopper, 1998). Regularity and systematicity are “produced by the partial settling or sedimentation of frequently used forms into temporary subsystems” (Hopper, ibid, p. 158).

overview2
Overview
  • Perception and action in semiotic contexts
  • The emergence of language abilities in meaningful activity
  • The dynamics of social interaction
  • The quality of educational experience
social interaction
Social Interaction
  • Primary intersubjectivity: face-to-face ‘proto-conversations,’ felt immediacy.
  • Secondary intersubjectivity: joint attention, ‘aboutness,’ indicational.
  • Tertiary intersubjectivity: grammaticalization, predicational.
scaffolding
Scaffolding
  • The game consists of an initial contact, the establishment of joint attention, disappearance, reappearance, and acknowledgement of renewed contact. These obligatory features or the “syntax” of the game occur together with optional features, such as vocalizations to sustain the infant’s interest, responses to the infant’s attempts to uncover the mother’s face, etc. These “non-rule bound” parts of the game are an instance of the mother providing a “scaffold” for the child (Bruner & Sherwood, 1975, p. 280).
prolepsis
Prolepsis
  • The mind projects its mature psychological capacities onto the earlier stages of its development: We see the higher mental functions in the infant’s behaviour even when they are not yet present….. treating children as if they had abilities they do not yet possess is a necessary condition of the development of those abilities (Bakhurst, 1991, p.67).
scaffolding1
Scaffolding
  • Continuity: task sequences, ritual with variation
  • Contextual Support: supportive environment, guidance and structure, facilitated access
  • Intersubjectivity: engagement, encouragement
  • Contingency: contributions oriented towards one another
  • Handover/Takeover: increasing role for learner
  • Flow: balance between skills and challenges

(van Lier, in press)

scaffolding on three time scales
Scaffolding on Three Time Scales
  • Macro: Planning (a syllabus, a chain of tasks, a project, etc.) over a long-term period
  • Meso: Planning the steps of a particular activity or task
  • Micro: Moment-to moment interactional work
slide20

scaffold

zone of proximal development

self

regulation

Intra-personalprocess

inter-personalprocess

Leo van Lier, 1996

Based on L.S. Vygotsky

an expanded zpd

Assistance from more capable peers or adults

Inner Resources: knowledge, experience, memory investment

SELF

REGULATION

Interaction with less capable peers

Interaction with equal peers

“If one member of a dyad undergoes developmental change, the other is also likely to do so”

(Bronfenbrenner 1979:65)

An Expanded ZPD

Scaffolding: Modeling…

Resourcefulness, Self-access

“Docendo discimus” (We learn by teaching)

Van Lier, 2003

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SCAFFOL-DING

PROLEPSIS

ZPD

PROXIMAL CONTEXT

EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING

overview3
Overview
  • Perception and action in semiotic contexts
  • The emergence of language abilities in meaningful activity
  • The dynamics of social interaction
  • The quality of educational experience
quality
Quality
  • Standards do not equal quality
  • Quality cannot be measured by test scores
  • Indicators of educational quality cannot be quantified
  • Interventionist and contextualized types of research are important
  • Education must promote creativity, variety and diversity
effective functioning
Effective Functioning
  • differentiated perception and response
  • directing and controlling one’s own behavior
  • coping successfully under stress
  • acquiring new knowledge and skill
  • establishing and maintaining mutually rewarding relationships
  • modifying and constructing one’s own physical, social, and symbolic environment

(Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994, p. 569).